Kitâb al-aʻlâk an-nafîsa VII auctore Abû Alî Ahmed ibn Omar Ibn Rosteh et Kitâb al-boldân auctore Ahmed ibn abî Jakûb ibn Wâdhih al-Kâtib al-Jakûbî by. Warhammer 40k – Lexicanum β. Search. Edit; Watch this page. Ahmad Ibn Rustah. Redirect page. Redirect to: Kasper Ansbach Hawser. Retrieved from. Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. Ahmad ibn Rustah 1 Historical.

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Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani Persian: The information on his home town of Isfahan is especially extensive and valuable. Ibn Rustah states that, while for other lands he had to depend on second-hand reports, often acquired with great difficulty and with no means of checking their veracity, for Isfahan he could use his own experience and observations or statements from others known to be reliable.

Thus we have a description of the twenty districts rostaqs of Isfahan containing details not found in other geographers’ works. Concerning the town itself, we learn that it was perfectly circular in shape, with a circumference of half a farsangwalls defended by a hundred towers, and four gates.

His information on the non-Islamic peoples of Europe and Inner Asia makes him a useful source for these obscure regions he was even aware of the existence of the British Isles and of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and for the prehistory of the Turks and other steppe peoples. He travelled to Novgorod with the Rus’ and compiled books relating his own travels, as well as second-hand knowledge of the KhazarsMagyarsSlavsBulgars and other peoples.

Iranian peoples — The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic, Turkic and Mongol expansions and many being subjected to Slavicisation. The following are according to and later linguists, Emmanuel Laroche, Old Iranian arya- being descended from Proto-Indo-European ar-yo- meaning assembler. Today, the Old Iranian arya- remains in ethno-linguistic names such as Iran, Alan, Ir, in the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of Avesta.

The earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word occurs in the Bistun Inscription of the 6th century BC. The inscription of Bistun describes itself to have composed in Arya. As is also the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, in royal Old Persian inscriptions, the term arya- appears in three different contexts, As the name of the language of the Old Persian version of the inscription of Darius I in the Bistun Inscription.

In the Dna and Dse, Darius and Xerxes describe themselves as an Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, although Darius the Great called his language arya- modern scholars refer to it as Old Persian because it is the ancestor of the modern Persian language.

The trilingual inscription erected by the command of Shapur I gives a clear description. The languages used are Parthian, Middle Persian, and Greek, tou Arianon ethnous despotes eimi, which translates to I am the king of the kingdom of the Iranians. The homeland varied in its range, the area around Herat. Isfahan — Isfahan, historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about kilometres south of Tehran.

Isfahan is located on the main north—south and east—west routes crossing Iran and it flourished from toparticularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history.

Even today, the city retains much of its past glory and it is famous for its Persian—Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, the city also has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings, history and architecture. The region appears with the abbreviation GD on Sasanian numismatics, in Ptolemys Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to place of gathering for the army.

In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages. It is said that after Cyrus the Great freed the Jews from Babylon some Jews returned to Jerusalem whereas some others decided to live in Persia, but, actually this happened later in the Sasanid period when a Jewish colony was made in the vicinity of the Sasanid.

They did not settle anywhere or in any city without examining the water. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan, there they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Upon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the citys urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city.

The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids, presided over changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture.

The city was called by the name and the region by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by Espoohrans or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the kings were also fond of ambitious urban planning projects. Comprising a land area of 1, km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline.


Ibn Rustah, Aḥmad ibn ʻUmar active 9th centuryth century [WorldCat Identities]

The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region.

The empire collapsed in BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers.

During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution ofwhich established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body.

Following a coup instigated by the U. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part russtah its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the rusgah number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Its political system is based on the Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership.

A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Rhstah, Kurds and Lurs. Ahjad, Iran has been ahmax to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Qhmad, in the 9th xhmad BC.

The settlement rrustah then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains.

Steppe — In South Africa they are referred to as Veld. The prairie is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such and it may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude.

The term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest. The soil is typically of chernozem type, steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate.

Precipitation level alone is not what defines a steppe climate, potential evapotranspiration must also be taken into account, the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, and the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe eventually led to, the Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe, primarily Hungary.

Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada, the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region.

In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia, relatively small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand.

In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent, in Australia, subtropical steppe can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. Khazars — The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to ahmmad from the break-up of the Western Turkic Kaganate. For some three centuries the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea, the alliance was dropped around Between andthe Kievan Rus ruler Sviatoslav I of Kiev conquered the capital Atil, the native religion of the Khazars is thought to have been Tengrism, like that of the North Caucasian Huns and other Turkic peoples.

The polyethnic populace of the Khazar Khaganate appears to have been a multiconfessional mosaic of pagan, Tengrist, Jewish, Christian and this ahmzd still finds occasional support, but most scholars view it with scepticism.

Ahmad ibn Rustah

The theory is associated with antisemitism and anti-Zionism. One method for tracing their origins consists in analysis of the possible etymologies behind the ethnonym Khazar itself. The tribes that were to comprise the Khazar empire were not a union, but a congeries of steppe nomads and peoples who came to be subordinated. The emergence of this system may be deeply entwined with the conversion to Judaism, particularly elaborate rituals accompanied a royal burial.

At one period, travellers had to dismount, bow before the rulers tomb, such a royal burial ground is typical of inner Asian peoples. Hungarians — Hungarians, also known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary.


There are around It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the borders of Europe. Magyar possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. AD, though in his use, Turks always referred to Magyars, the historical Latin phrase Natio Hungarica had a wider meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity.

During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central, some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards.

From at least BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture.

In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers, meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate and their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.

Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs aroundthe new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs. Slavs — Slavs are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe. Present-day Slavic people are classified into West Slavs, East Slavs, there are an estimated million Slavs worldwide.

The English term slave eventually derives from the ethnonym Slav, Slavs were captured and enslaved by the Muslims of Spain during the ninth century AD. The Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni make their first appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in that the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a name in the remote past.

He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, and that believe in one god. They lived in scattered housing, and constantly changed settlement, regarding warfare, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battleaxes, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only their genitals covered. And they live a life, giving no heed to bodily comforts.

Jordanes described the Sclaveni having swamps and forests for their cities, another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes. The Avars asked the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars, he declined and is reported as saying, Others do not conquer our land. The relationship between the Slavs and a called the Veneti east of the River Vistula in the Roman period is uncertain. The name may refer both to Balts and Slavs, perhaps some Slavs migrated with the movement of the Vandals to Iberia and north Africa.

Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers, the Byzantine records note that grass would not regrow in places where the Slavs had marched through, so great were their numbers. Bulgars — The Bulgars were semi-nomadic warrior Turkic tribes who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. Emerging as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, according to some researchers their roots can be traced to Central Asia, during their westward migration across the Eurasian steppe the Bulgars absorbed other ethnic groups and cultural influences, including Hunnic, Iranian and Indo-European people.

Modern genetic research on Central Asian Turkic people and ethnic groups related to the Bulgars points to an affiliation with western Eurasian and European populations, the Bulgars spoke a Turkic language, i.

Bulgar language of Oghuric branch. They preserved military titles, organization and customs of Eurasian steppes, as well as pagan shamanism, the Rudtah became semi-sedentary during the 7th century in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, establishing the polity of Old Great Bulgaria c. In the Balkans, the Bulgars became a political and military elite, and merged with previous populations, ahmd as the Thracians and Vlachs, and were Slavicized, thus forming modern Bulgarians. The etymology of the ethnonym Bulgar is not completely understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD.

Boodberg noted that the Buluoji in the Chinese sources were recorded as remnants of the Xiongnu confederation, and had strong Caucasian elements. Karatay considered the Kutrigurs and Utigurs to be two related, ancestral people, and prominent tribes in the later Bulgar union, but different from the Bulgars, among many other theories regarding the etymology of Bulgar, the following have also had limited support. An Eastern Germanic root meaning combative, according to D, the origin of the early Bulgars is still unclear.

Medicine in the medieval Islamic world — Islamic medicine preserved, systematized and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity.