Hable con su médico sobre el uso de la benzocaína y otros o tiene problemas respiratorios, tales como asma, bronquitis o enfisema. An avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain /98 was attenuated using .. obvious lesions than those that were still alive at same time, including white spots in . U inokuliranih zametaka, bez obzira na divlji ili cijepni soj, razvile su. SUMMARY. Seven isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) were isolated from libres de pat6genos de un dfa de edad fueron inoculados con las cepas aisladas para examinar su . that died as well as all of the birds remaining alive at.

Author: Dijinn Samujora
Country: France
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Finance
Published (Last): 24 May 2007
Pages: 315
PDF File Size: 7.52 Mb
ePub File Size: 5.85 Mb
ISBN: 792-5-76330-828-6
Downloads: 1516
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Nagar

Chronic obstructive aliviee disease COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. Most cases of COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to risk factors.

As ofCOPD affected about Bronqkitis most common symptoms of COPD are sputum production, shortness of breathand a productive cough.

A chronic cough is often the first symptom to develop. When it persists for more than three months each year for at least two years, in combination with sputum production and without another explanation, it is by definition chronic bronchitis. This condition can occur before COPD fully develops. The amount of sputum produced can change over hours to days.

In some cases, the cough may not be present or may only occur occasionally and may not be productive. Some people with COPD attribute the symptoms to a “smoker’s cough”. Sputum may be swallowed or spat out, depending often on social and cultural factors. Vigorous coughing may lead to rib fractures or a brief loss of consciousness. Those with COPD often have a history of ” common colds ” that last a long time.

Shortness of breath is often the symptom that most bothers people. In COPD, breathing out may take longer than breathing in.

Advanced COPD leads to high pressure on the lung arterieswhich strains the right ventricle of the heart. COPD often occurs along with a number of other conditions, due in part to shared risk factors.

An acute exacerbation of COPD is defined as increased shortness of breath, increased sputum production, a change in the color of the sputum from clear to green or yellow, or an increase in cough in someone with COPD.

The primary cause of COPD is tobacco smoke, with occupational exposure and pollution from indoor fires being significant causes in some countries. The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking.

Poorly ventilated cooking fires, often fueled by coal or biomass fuels such as wood and dung, lead to indoor air pollution and are one of the most common causes of COPD in developing countries. People who live in large cities have a higher rate of COPD compared to people who live in rural areas. Intense and prolonged exposure to workplace dusts, chemicals, and fumes increases the risk of COPD in both smokers and nonsmokers.

Digitopuntura para la tos

A number of industries and sources have been implicated, including [11] high levels of dust in coal mininggold miningand the cotton textile industryoccupations involving cadmium bronqujtis isocyanatesand fumes from welding.

Genetics play a role in the development of Alivid. A number of other factors are less closely linked to COPD. The risk is greater in those who are poor, although if this is due to poverty itself or other risk factors associated with poverty, such as air pollution and malnutrition, is not clear.

An acute exacerbation a sudden worsening of symptoms [48] is commonly triggered by infection or environmental pollutants, or sometimes by other factors such as improper use of medications. COPD is a type of bronquitiw lung disease in which chronic, incompletely reversible poor airflow airflow limitation and inability to breathe out fully air trapping exist.


The relative contributions of these two factors vary between people. This form of disease is broonquitis bullous emphysema. COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.

Those who smoke additionally have Tc1 lymphocyte involvement and some people with COPD brnoquitis eosinophil involvement similar to that in asthma. Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with lung damage include oxidative stress produced by high concentrations of free suu in tobacco smoke and released by inflammatory cells, and breakdown of the connective tissue of the lungs by proteases that are insufficiently inhibited by protease inhibitors.

The destruction of the connective tissue of the lungs leads to emphysema, which then contributes to the poor airflow, and finally, poor zu and release of respiratory gases. Narrowing of the airways occurs broquitis to inflammation and scarring within them. This contributes to the inability to breathe out fully.

The greatest reduction in air flow occurs when breathing out, as the pressure in the chest is compressing the airways at this time. Some also have a degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to irritants similar to those found in asthma. Low oxygen levelsand eventually, high carbon dioxide levels in the bloodcan occur from poor gas exchange due to decreased ventilation from airway obstruction, hyperinflation, and a reduced desire to breathe.

This can also lead to insufficient ventilationand eventually, low blood oxygen levels. Both of these changes result in increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arterieswhich may cause cor pulmonale.

The diagnosis of COPD should be considered in anyone over the age of 35 to 40 who has shortness of breath bronquihis, a chronic cough, sputum production, or frequent winter colds and a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease. Spirometry measures the amount of airflow obstruction present and is generally carried out after the use of a bronchodilatora medication to open up the airways. Evidence for using spirometry among those without symptoms in an effort to diagnose the condition earlier is of uncertain effect, so currently is not recommended.

A number of methods can determine how much COPD is affecting a given individual. A chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions at the time of diagnosis.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – Wikipedia

COPD may need to be differentiated from other causes of shortness of breath such as congestive heart failurepulmonary embolismpneumoniaor pneumothorax. Many people with COPD mistakenly think they have asthma. Most cases of COPD are potentially preventable through decreasing exposure to smoke and improving air quality. Keeping people from starting smoking is a key aspect of preventing COPD. In those who smoke, stopping smoking is the only measure shown to slow down the worsening of COPD.

Some smokers can achieve long-term smoking cessation through willpower alone. Smoking, however, is highly addictive, [80] and many smokers need further support. The chance of quitting is improved with social support, engagement in a smoking cessation program, and the use of medications such as nicotine replacement therapybupropionor varenicline.

A number of measures bromquitis been taken to reduce the likelihood that workers in at-risk industries—such as coal mining, construction, and stonemasonry—will develop COPD. Both indoor and bronquuitis air quality can be improved, which may prevent COPD or slow the worsening of existing disease. A number of developed countries have successfully improved outdoor bronquitia quality through regulations.

This has resulted in improvements in the lung function of their aluvie. One key effort is to reduce exposure au smoke from cooking and heating fuels through improved ventilation of homes and better stoves and chimneys. Using alternative energy sources such as solar cooking and electrical heating is also effective. Using fuels such as kerosene or coal might be less bad than traditional biomass such as wood or dung.

No cure for COPD is known, but the symptoms are treatable and its progression can be delayed. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of exercise, disease management, and counseling, coordinated to benefit the individual. The optimal exercise routine, use of noninvasive ventilation during exercise, and intensity of exercise suggested for people with COPD, is unknown. Being either underweight or overweight can affect the symptoms, degree of disability, and prognosis of COPD.


People with COPD who are underweight can improve their breathing muscle bronquktis by increasing their calorie intake. Supplemental nutrition may be useful in those who are akivie. Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used, [2] and result in a small overall bronquitks. In those with mild disease, short-acting agents are recommended on an as needed basis. Some feel the evidence of benefits is limited, [] while others view the evidence of benefit as established.

Two main anticholinergics are used in COPD, ipratropium and tiotropium. Ipratropium is a short-acting agent, while tiotropium is long-acting. Tiotropium is associated with a decrease in exacerbations and improved quality of life, [] and tiotropium provides those benefits better than ipratropium.

Corticosteroids are usually used in inhaled form, but may also be used as tablets to treat and prevent acute exacerbations. While inhaled corticosteroids ICSs have not shown benefit for people with mild COPD, they decrease acute exacerbations in those with either moderate or severe disease.

Long-term antibioticsspecifically those from the macrolide class such as erythromycinreduce the frequency of exacerbations in those who have two or more a year. For people with COPD, the use of cardioselective heart-specific beta-blocker therapy does not appear to impair respiratory function.

For those with very severe disease, surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume-reduction surgery[2] which involves removing the parts of the lung most damaged by emphysema, allowing the remaining, relatively good lung to expand and work better. Acute exacerbations bronqyitis typically treated by increasing the use of short-acting bronchodilators. Excessive oxygen; however, can result in increased CO 2 levels and a decreased aliie of consciousness.

Corticosteroids by mouth improve the chance of recovery and decrease the overall duration of symptoms. For people with type 2 respiratory failure acutely raised CO 2 levels non-invasive positive pressure ventilation decreases the probability of death or the need of intensive care admission.

COPD usually gets bronnquitis worse over time and can ultimately result in death. The rate at which COPD worsens varies with the presence of factors that predict a poor outcome, including severe airflow obstruction, little ability to exercise, shortness of breath, significant underweight or overweight, congestive heart failure brnquitis, continued smoking, and frequent exacerbations.

Between and the number of deaths from COPD decreased slightly from 3. In England, an estimated 0. In the most socioeconomically deprived parts of the country, one in 32 people were diagnosed with COPD, compared with one in 98 in the most affluent areas.

The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema were formally defined in at the CIBA guest symposium and in at the American Thoracic Society Committee meeting on Diagnostic Standards.

Early descriptions of probable emphysema include: Bonet of a condition of “voluminous au and in by Giovanni Morgagni of lungs which were “turgid particularly from air”. In Charles Badham used “catarrh” to describe the cough and excess mucus in chronic bronchitis.

He noted that they did not collapse as usual because they us full of air and the alivif were filled with mucus. InJohn Hutchinson invented the spirometerwhich allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his spirometer could measure only volume, not airflow. Tiffeneau and Pinelli in described the principles of measuring airflow. Waldbottan American allergist, first described a new disease he named “smoker’s respiratory syndrome” in the Journal of the American Medical Association.