Anti-ulcer therapeutics has wider market globally citing the fact of prevalence of .. Anti-ulcer, Antibacterial  Tippani Allophylus serratus Leaves Antiulcer  . This study has presented the review of commonly used anti-ulcer plants which are Allophylus serratus Kurz is commonly known as Tippani. ulcer healing property of Ocimum sanctum, Allophylus serratus, Desmodium We have highlighted some of the important plants reported for their anti-ulcer and .
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Antiulcet Three extracts of propolis harvested from Nkambe, North-West region of Cameroon were characterized by Anitulcer analysis and their gastric cytoprotective, antisecretory and antioxidant properties evaluated using experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Three triterpenes, lupeol, lupenone, hydroxymangiferonic acid and an ester of fatty acid heptadecyl butanoate were isolated and characterized.
Increasing doses of the extracts inhibited pylorus ligation-induced lesions by The cytoprotective action of the most active acetone extract may involve the mediation of endogenous prostaglandins.
Allophylus serratus: a plant with potential anti-ulcerogenic activity.
Peptic ulcers are a deep gastrointestinal erosion disorder that involves the entire mucosal thickness, penetrating the muscular mucosa. For decades it was believed that gastrointestinal ulcerations were caused by the excessive secretion of gastric acid, but many patients presenting such ulcerations had normal acid secretion rates 3.
Then some researchers reported that peptic ulcers are caused when the balance between aggressive factors such as acid and pepsin and defense mechanisms such as mucus, bicarbonate, blood flow and mucosal turnover are shifted in favour of the former 4.
Exogenous aggressive factors such as cigarette smoke, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDsalcohol, stress, fatty foods and Helicobacter pylori infections trigger tissue necrosis through mucosal ischemia, free radical generation and cessation of nutrient delivery.
Although, histamine H 2 -receptor blockers for example ranitidine and famotidineproton-pump inhibitors for example omeprazole and lansoprazoleantibiotics for example metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and tetracycline and other drugs are extensively used in the management of peptic ulcers, there are reports of adverse effects and relapse within one year 8 and also a number of side effects.
For example, proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole may cause nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea and H 2 -receptor antagonists cimetidine may cause gynaecomastia and loss of libido. Due to the occurrence of many side effects triggered by use of synthetic drugs for many diseases, medicinal plant s are considered as the main source of new drugs as they are believed to have less or no side effects.
Herbal medicine s are considered as safe for the treatment of ulcers with less adverse effects. Drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcers might be very expensive and unaffordable by many. Also in poor countries not everyone can have access to conventional and modern drugs and so they tend to recourse to medicinal plant s and other natural products for treatment of various ailments.
In addition to being economical, plant sources are effective and relatively less toxic and extensive study is presently being carried out in the study for potent antiulcer agents of plant origin 9 – Traditionally plants have not only provided food and shelter for mankind, but have also been used to cure many different ailments Propolis is an apicultural product that has been used for its various biological properties, particularly as a source of alternative medicines for disease treatment and prevention in different parts of the world.
Bees use propolis to narrow the nest entrances, seal cracks and embalm dead organisms inside the hive and the antibiotic properties of propolis provide a healthy hive environment for the honeybee colony Recently, it has been reported to possess various biological activities such as antinociceptive 14antimicrobial 1516antiviral 1718anti-inflammatory 1920anticancerous 2122antifungal 1723antitumoral 2124antioxidant 142526hepatoprotective 27antiulcer 2829antiaging 30antidiabetes 3132immunemodulating 33 and antibacterial 13 properties.
The action of propolis against microorganisms represents the most essential pharmaceutical characteristic, for which it has been used by human beings since ancient times A number of chemical constituents are responsible for these pharmacological activities of propolis. Some of these compounds belong to flavonoids, prenylated p-coumaric acids and acetophenones, lignans, phenolic compoundsdi-and triterpenes, caffeoylquinic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons and mineral elements 34 and these chemical composition s of propolis depend on the collection site, available plant sources and bee species.
In recent years, a remarkable number of studies have reported many advances made in the chemical and pharmacological studies of medicinal plant s and other natural products as well as therapeutically active compounds obtained from propolis.
Since incorrect use of the natural products offers can be dangerous to society, it is important to identify the active compounds, linking its structure with the biological activity and to report the correct manner, in which to use them with regard to dose, route of administration and frequency of use. In general, the metabolic profile of an extract gives an insight into its plant origin and allows the identification of its major constituents and also of a number of minor constituents, depending on the technique.
It reveals the types of compounds present and gives an idea about the possible activities to be expected. In the present study, three extracts methanol, acetone and hexane extracts were prepared from propolis harvested from Nkambe in the North-West region of Cameroon and the chemical profiles were characterized by GC-MS analysis.
The gastric cytoprotective activity, antisecretory and antioxidant properties of the extracts were then evaluated using experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Collection and significance of propolis in the locality of collection: The propolis was harvested from bee hives of an apiary located within the same area in Njap village, Nkambe town, North-West region of Cameroon during the months of February-March, In Nkambe as well as many other localities in Cameroon, propolis is used by local sculptors for ornamental works and mending of calabashes.
It is also exploited for its medicinal uses to treat tooth ache, stomach disorders, gastritis and sore throat by chewing directly. Its aqueous extract is used in treating wounds, skin rashes, boils and burns.
The propolis powder was extracted successively by maceration with 10 V fold of hexane, acetone and methanol in a tightly closed glass jar kept in a dark cupboard at ambient temperature for 48 h with intermittent stirring.
The supernatant was carefully decanted and filtered through a Whatmann No. The final filtrates were evaporated to near dryness on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure to remove the solvent and the extract was collected in a clean vial. The maceration, filtration and evaporation process was repeated three times for each solvent after which the residual powder was dried before introduction of a new solvent.
All the extracts were well conserved for GC-MS analysis and antiulcer tests. GC-MS analysis Preparation of the analyte sample: The silylated extracts were analyzed by GC-MS.
Helium was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 0. The split ratio was 1: Every extract was analyzed in duplicate. Identification and quantification of compounds: The identification of individual compounds were performed using computer searches on commercial libraries, comparison with spectra of authentic samples and literature data.
If no reference spectra were available, identification was performed based on the mass-spectral fragmentation and in such cases for some compounds only tentative structures were proposed.
Some constituents remained unidentified because of the lack of relevant references and information none of them major constituents. Xllophylus quantification of individual constituents is based on internal normalization. Isolation and characterization of pure compounds: The structures of the compounds indexed, TA1, TA2, TA5 and ANT were elucidated based on their respective spectroscopic data and by comparison with some data reported in literature. The rats were deprived of food for 36 h prior to experimentation but all the animals anntiulcer free access to tap water.
The animals received the plant extract by oral route, 1 h before they were given the necrotizing solution. Positive control rats received sucralfate in place of the extract.
They were killed using ether, the abdomen of each opened and the stomachs removed. Blood and gastric tissue samples were qntiulcer and prepared for the measurement of oxidative stress parameters.
Absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions: Pylorus ligated gastric secretion and ulceration in rats: The method of Shay et al. The test rats received the extract, while the controls received distilled water 1 mL or cimetidine. One hour later, laparotomy was performed under ether anesthesia, the pylorus of each rat was ligatured and the abdominal incisions stitched up. The gastric juice produced during six subsequent hours was collected from each rat, the volume measured and 1 mL aliquots kept for gastric acid measurement.
The ulcers produced in the glandular region of the stomachs were measured and ulcer index, percentage of inhibition, percentage of ulcerated surface were determined. Measurement of mucus production: The mucus covering of each stomach was antiulccer scraped using a glass slide and the mucus weighed carefully using a sensitive digital electronic balance. Measurement of gastric acidity: One milliliter of centrifuged gastric contents from each rat was assayed for hydrogen ion concentration by pH-metric titration against 0.
Measurement of in vivo antioxidant capacity: Blood and gastric tissue samples were assayed for oxidative stress parameters as follows: Cellular glutathione GSH was measured based on the reaction between 2,2-dithio-5,5-dibenzoic acid and the thiol SH groups of glutathione to yield a complex, whose absorbence 38 was read at nm.
Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde The p-values less than 0. Different techniques are appropriate for the purpose of chemical profiling of propolis as demonstrated by numerous papers dealing with propolis analysis and hyphenated techniques are the most appropriate ones: Their percentages are given in the tables and refer to percent of the Total Ion Current TICwhich are semi-quantitative since the ion current generated depends on the characteristics of the compound concerned and it is not a true quantitation.
The GC-MS techniques have been proven to be suitable for chemical profiling of propolis Even though these techniques provide a sufficient profile and identification of the compounds analyzed 40the propolis has to be derivatised in order to increase the concentration of volatile compounds for detection.
However, not all compounds comprising propolis are able to be derivatised or become volatile after derivatisation The GC-MS analysis of the silylated samples of the three extracts of propolis PHEN, PAEN and PMEN led to the identification of over 40 compounds belonging to various classes of natural products such as triterpenoids, alkenyl phenols and alkenyl resorcinols, fatty acid s, sugars and anarcadic acids.
Allophylus serratus: a plant with potential anti-ulcerogenic activity.
The most abundant compounds in the acetone and hexane extracts are triterpenes and triterpene derivatives. Propolis samples from tropical and subtropical regions such as Cameroon have been proven to be rich in triterpenes and almost deprived of or contain only traces of other constituents Many studies with African propolis from different regions, like Kenya, Cameroon, Congo and Ethiopia showed that triterpenoids are major chemical components 42 – 44 and phytochemical studies of Cameroonian and some African propolis samples led to the isolation of or identification of a significant number of triterpenes 14164345 – Therefore, the major source of triterpenoids is terrestrial vegetation Generally, the main constituents of propolis are resins and volatiles, which are substances obtained from a variety of botanical processes in different parts of plants found in the site of collection of the propolis samples and beeswax secreted by the bees.
Besides triterpenes, a number of fatty acid s, hexadecanoic acid, octadecenoic acid, octadecanoic acid, eicosanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid were also identified in the PAEN. A good number of fatty acid s and organic acid s have been identified in Turkish propolis 5253 and also fatty acid s have been revealed in Omani propolis To the best of this knowledge, this is the first time that fatty acid s are reported in important amounts in Cameroonian propolis and tropical propolis although methyl esters of these acids have been reported as major constituents of Ethiopian propolis An alkenyl phenol, pentadecyl phenol together with alkenyl resorcinols, pentadecenyl resorcinol, heptadecyl resorcinol, heptadecadienyl resorcinol, heptadecatrienyl resorcinol, heptadecenyl resorcinol and nonadecenyl resorcinol were also identified in the PAEN.
These compounds were reported previously in Cameroonian propolis 45 with the exception of heptadecadienyl resorcinol identified in Brazilian geopropolis 55 and heptadecatrienyl resorcinol. Therefore mango could be a possible plant source of resin used by bees for the manufacture of propolis from the site of collection in Njap-Nkambe, a hypothesis that might require further verification.
This fact is supported by the presence of qllophylus acids, anacardic acid, C Glycerol has been detected in a good number of propolis samples from different regions around the world for example in Turkish propolis, Canadian propolis and Brazilian geopropolis 5255 Monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose, ribose, rhamnose, talose, gulose and saccharose are commonly present in propolis Sugars were also found in Turkish propolis and Omani propolis 5254 and geopropolis from Northeast Brazil Some of the polyols alcohols identified in the PMEN such as pinitol, glucitol, inositol and quinic acid are known to possess good biological activities.
For the triterpenes, lupeol and lupenone have been described previously in Cameroonian propolis 14while hydroxymangiferonic acid was isolated from propolis of Myanmar Although, as a minor constituent, the presence of mangiferonic acid in the propolis substantiates the fact that Mangifera indica could be a major plant source of propolis in Cameroon.
When the extracts were screened for cytoprotective activity antiulceer the highly corrosive absolute ethanol solution, control rats developed hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular portions of their stomachs 1 h after induction of the lesions. Mucus production increased from The highly corrosive nature of absolute ethanol to the gastric mucosa is well known. Absolute ethanol causes gastric mucosal lesions through the release of tissue-derived mediators, such as histamine and leucotriene C 4 as well as by superficial aggressive cellular necrosis.