APCO PHONETIC ALPHABET PDF

APCO PHONETIC ALPHABET PDF

Phonetic Alphabet. The phonetic alphabet assigns code words to the letters of the English alphabet (Alfa for A, Bravo for B, etc.) APCO Phonetic Alphabet. The LAPD phonetic alphabet is also known as the APCO phonetic alphabet, named after the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials International. 10 Codes and Phonetic Alphabet. Letter Military Police. Letter Military. Police. Letter Military Police. A. Alfa. Adam. I. India. Ida. R. Romeo Robert. B. Bravo. Boy.

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The NATO phonetic alphabetofficially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabetand also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabetand in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure codeis the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.

Although often called “phonetic alphabets”, spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabetso that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those alphanet exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.

The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome.

As noted in a NATO memo. It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has alphaabet prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.

The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages. A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many pphonetic sound similar, for instance “n” and “m” or “f” and “s”; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present.

For instance the message “proceed to map grid DH98” could be transmitted as “proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait”. The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion as well. In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codesalthough ad hoc coding is often used in that instance.

Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records PNRs internally, and in some cases, with customers. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information. During the Vietnam Warthe U. The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities.

The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood alphhabet the context of others. For example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication. The pronunciation of the code words varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available.

Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter.

ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English phonrtic being pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. The digit 3 is specified as tree so that it is not qlphabet sri; the long pronunciation of 4 still found in some English dialects keeps it somewhat distinct from for; 5 is pronounced with a second “f” because the normal pronunciation with a “v” is easily confused with “fire” a command to shoot ; and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German nein ‘no’.

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Both the IPA and alphabett pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom, [17] so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents.

Furthermore, the pronunciation prescribed for whiskey begins the voicedalthough some speakers alphabeet the voiceless here, particularly in Scotland and Ireland wine—whine distinction.

APCO radiotelephony spelling alphabet – Unionpedia, the concept map

Prior to World War I and the development and widespread adoption of two-way radio that supported voice, telephone spelling alphabets were developed to improve communication on low-quality and long-distance telephone circuits. The experience gained with that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during by the ITU.

Throughout World War II, many nations used their own versions of a spelling alphabet. At least two of the terms are sometimes still used by UK civilians to spell words over the phone, namely F for Freddie and S for Sugar. To enable the U. It was defined in one or more of CCBP The CCB alphabet itself was based on the U. Army Field Manuals in the series.

Several of these documents had revisions, and were renamed.

Handy, directorate of Communications in the Army Air Force and a member of the working committee of the Combined Communications Boardenlisted the help of Harvard University’s Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, asking them to determine the most successful word for each letter when using “military interphones in the intense noise encountered in modern warfare. According to a report on the subject. The results showed that many of the words in the military lists had a low level of intelligibility, but that most of the deficiencies could be remedied by the judicious selection of words from the commercial codes and those tested by the laboratory.

In a few instances where none of the words could be regarded as especially satisfactory, it was believed possible to discover suitable replacements.

Other words were tested and the most intelligible ones were compared with the more desirable lists. After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, “Able Baker” was officially adopted for use in international aviation.

But many sounds were unique to English, so an alternative “Ana Brazil” alphabet was used in Latin America. After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was adopted on 1 Novemberto become effective on 1 April for civil aviation but it may not have been adopted by any military. Problems were soon found with this list. Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old “Able Baker” alphabet.

Confusion among words like Delta and Extra, and between Nectar and Victor, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems.

Later inICAO decided to revisit the alphabet and their research. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States. Among the more interesting of the research findings was that “higher noise levels do not create confusion, but do intensify those confusions already inherent between the words in question”.

By early the ICAO was nearly complete with this research, and published the new official phonetic alphabet in order to account for discrepancies that might arise in communications as a result of multiple alphabet naming systems coexisting in different places and organizations.

After all of the above study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. It was finally adopted by the IMO in In the official [32] version of the alphabet, the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used. Alfa is spelled with an f as it is in most European languages because the English and French spelling alpha would not be pronounced properly by native speakers of some other languages — who may not know that ph should be pronounced as f.

Allied Military phonetic spelling alphabets – Wikipedia

Juliett is spelled with a tt for French speakers, because they may otherwise treat a phonetc final t as silent. In some English versions of the alphabet, one or both of these may have their standard English spelling. For the and phonetics, each transmission of figures is preceded and followed by the words “as a number” spoken twice.

The ITU adopted the International Maritime Organization ‘s phonetic spelling alphabet in[50] and phoonetic specified that it be “for application in the maritime mobile service only”.

Pronunciation was not defined prior to For the —Present phonetics, the underlined syllable of each letter word should be emphasized, and each syllable of the code words for the figures —Present should be equally emphasized. The Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet is used by the International Civil Aviation Organization for international aircraft communications. ICAO phonetic alphabet Problems playing this file? The Wpco phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.

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Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.

The Allied Military phonetic spelling alphabets prescribe the words that are used to represent each letter of the alphabet, when spelling other words out loud, letter-by-letter, phonetiic how the spelling words should be pronounced.

They are not a “phonetic alphabet” in the sense in which that term is used in phonetics, i. The Allied military radiotelephone spelling alphabets were created prior to World War I and evolved separately in the United States and the United Kingdom—and separately among the individual military services in the two countries—until being merged during World War II.

A spelling alphabet, word-spelling alphabet, voice procedure alphabet, radio alphabet, or telephone alphabet is a set of words used to stand for the letters of an apoc in oral communication.

A large number of spelling alphabets phoetic been aoco over the past hundred-plus years, with the first ones being xlphabet to overcome problems alphabte the early wired telephone networks, and the later ones being focused on wireless two-way phoentic radiotelephony links. Often, each communications company and each branch of each country’s military developed its own spelling alphabet, with the result that one research effort documented a full different spelling alphabets, comprising different words, leading the author of the report to ask: Should an efficient American secretary, for example, know several alphabets—one for use on the telephone, another to talk to the telegraph operator, another to call the police, and still another for civil defense?

Look up phonetic alphabet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Phonetic alphabet can mean: The APCO phonetic alphabet, a. It is the “over the air” communication used for properly understanding a broadcast of letters in the form of easily understood words. Despite often being called a “phonetic alphabet”, it is not a phonetic alphabet for transcribing phonetics. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language.

See also Radio alphabet Swedish Armed F The Swedish Armed Forces’ radio alphabet was a radiotelephony alphabet made phojetic of Swedish two-syllable male names with the exception of Z which is just the name of the letter as pronounced in Swedish. This has been changed back again since the administrative authorities are required to use the Swedish language according to Swedish law even the Swedish Armed Forces.

The names are often derived from the NATO phonetic alphabet.

Phonetic Alphabet

Delta commonly refers to: The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form, and the same alpnabet constitute phknetic ISO basic Latin alphabet.

The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface and fontand the shape of handwritten letters can differ significantly from the standard printed form and between individualsespecially when written in cursive style.

The alphabet’s current form originated from Latin script about the 7th century. Since then, various letters have been added, or removed, to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form: This specialty is open to males and phoneti as well as allowing color vision deficient personnel. Description The primary role of 68W combat medic specialists in the U.

NATO phonetic alphabet

Army is providing medical treatment to wounded soldiers. Other nations and services also have similarly-trained personnel, but this discussion and the following details apply only to those within the United States Army. These medics serve as the basic or first tier of the Army medical system accompanying units as small as platoons approximately soldiers during training and deployments.

Medics provide initial emergency medical care, evacuation, and phonetkc to other soldiers with medical training such as Combat Lifesavers as well as provide medical advice to unit chains of command. In addition to first responder or combat medical suppo Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech.