In the present work, experiments were carried out to determine the suitability and usefulness of both fresh and dried Azolla as biofertilizer for Scotch Bonnet. Azolla biofertilizer may be a promising approach to achieve better N use efficiency (NUE) in paddy rice fields due to its great potential for biological N fixation. A field study was conducted to observe the effect of Azolla on rice yield, N uptake and its residual effect on subsequent wheat crop. Azolladeveloped into a thick.

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Fern biomass increased linearly from March 22nd to April 19th 28 daysfollowed by a more rapid growth until April 28th Figure 2. Loyola University, New Orleans. Dry Azolla was spread like a mulch around the base of the plant and used as a split treatment similar to inorganic fertilizer.

Az page was last edited on 30 Octoberat Contributions from the Museum of. One FAO study describes how azolla integrates into a tropical biomass agricultural system, reducing the need for inputs. Until now, most of the up-to-date research on Azolla in rice has been carried out in tropical or subtropical environments [ 7 — 9 ] and there are only a few reports from temperate ones [ 1011 ]. Thuiet, Use of Azolla in rice production in Vietnam. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The extreme of the date intervals is included. Herbicide treatment, Analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon, expressed as d. Fresh weight was evaluated every seven days and weight determinations were made after drying Azolla biomass with blotting paper. Both, weigh and estimation where made after 7 and 15 days.

The main areas of cultivation are in the western part of the Po valley in Northern Italy and in the river delta areas, Ebro and Guadalquivir, in Spain.

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Of the herbicides tested, Propanil permitted the survival of growing Azolla. It is now important to test, in greenhouse and field experiments, the efficacy of double cultivation of Azolla with rice for improving crop and soil xzolla. The Milan strain was therefore used in a herbicide resistance study. Typical rates for legumes are kg of nitrogen per hectare per year those for Azolla-Anabaena are kg of nitrogen per hectare per year. The dry weights of the whole shoot also showed increases similar to fruit yield.


The microspore forms a male gametophyte with a single antheridium which produces bioferrtilizer swimming sperm. Phosphorus concentration was also analyzed for each tank in order to estimate the P uptake relative to Azolla growth as a guide for the programming of additions to the medium.

Biofertilizer | The Azolla Foundation

The plants are small usually only a few cm across and float, but can be very abundant and form large mats. It was therefore considered necessary to use strains adapted to high latitudes and to local agricultural practices. Articles by Potluri, S. However, no long term studies of the healthiness of eating Azolla have been made on humans [21] and Azolla may contain BMAAa substance that is a possible cause of neurodegenerative diseases.

Abstract Scotch Bonnet pepper is a valuable commodity for Jamaica and the Caribbean, both for local consumption and for export because of its unique flavor and pungency. The sample, enclosed in a tin cap, is released from an auto sampler in an oxidation column at C in a helium current; oxygen is then injected to allow instantaneous combustion of the sample.

We observed high quantities of nitrogen in the leaf of the Japan and Italy strains, which appeared to be related to the decrease of its biomass during our test.


When rice paddies are flooded in the spring, they can be inoculated with Azollawhich then quickly multiplies to cover the water, suppressing weeds.

Organic fertilizers are dead organic matter of animal, plant and microbial origin that provides plant nutrients. Herbicide treatments Azol,a 3 generally caused stress, with an associated fall in N and C content until death ensued.


Male spores microspores are extremely small and are produced inside each microsporangium.

The myth that no mosquito can penetrate the coating of fern to lay its eggs in the water biofertilzier the plant its common name “mosquito fern”.

It is not tolerant of salinity; normal plants can’t survive in greater than It is two millimeters in diameter, azzolla inside are numerous male sporangia.

Most of the species can produce large amounts of deoxyanthocyanins in response to various stresses, [12] including bright sunlight and extremes of temperature, [13] [14] causing the water surface to appear to be covered with an intensely red carpet.

America’s Wetland Resource Center. At 13 days, the fresh weight of the samples treated with Cinosulfuron had shown slight increase of biomass in respect to initial inoculum. In other words, the fern should reach a good growth rate during spring, with a high percentage of nitrogen, and should be quite resistant to the most common herbicides used in the rice areas. However, the wide ranges of temperature, humidity, and solar radiation in which the fern flourishes suggest the possibility of using Azolla outside these regions [ 4 ].

PubMed Articles by Prasad, D. Is there a way out of this trap we have made for ourselves? This research presents a first attempt to evaluate the possibility of using Azolla-Anabaena in rice fields in xzolla Po Valley, as a source of easily mineralized organic Nitrogen.

After wzolla from the beginning of the experiment, on the Apr. Indeed, the plant has been used to bolster agricultural productivity in Biofertilizdr for over a thousand years.