Bakounine et Montesquieu. An article from journal Liberté (La chasse aux sorcières), on Érudit. (Paris): Jean-Jacques Pauvert,, Schmal.8°, typogr. OBrosch., papierbed. etw. gebräunt, Ganzschwarzschnitt; schönes Expl. Erste Ausgabe in dieser Form. Results 1 – 30 of La liberté; choix de textes. Collection: Libertés, N° by BAKOUNINE and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available.
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Goodreads helps bakounnie follow your favorite authors. Be the first to learn liberg new releases! He makes man ashamed of his bestial ignorance and obedience; he emancipates him, stamps upon his brow the seal of liberty and humanity, in urging him to disobey and eat of the fruit of knowledge.
The freedom of other men, far from negating or limiting my freedom, is, on the contrary, its necessary premise and confirmation. Those who have cautiously done no more than they believed possible have never taken a single step forward. Then make sure that no one shall possess power. And since all States, ever since they came to exist upon the earth, have been condemned to perpetual struggle — a struggle against their own populations, whom they oppress and ruin, a struggle against all foreign States, every one of libery can be strong only if the others are weak — and since the States cannot hold their own in this struggle unless they constantly keep on augmenting their power against their own subjects as well as against the neighborhood States — it follows that the supreme law of the State is the augmentation of its power to the detriment of internal liberty and external justice.
This idea is the invisible power of our century, with which the present powers — the States — must reckon. They cannot submit to it of their own free will because such submission on their part would be equivalent to suicide, since the triumph of humanity can be realized only through the destruction of the States. But the States can no longer deny this idea nor openly rebel against it, for having now grown too strong, it may finally destroy them. In the face of this fainful alternative there remains only one way out: The States pay their outward respects to this idea of humanity; they speak and apparently act only in the name of it, but they violate it every day.
This, however, should not be held against the States. They cannot act otherwise, their position having become such that they can hold their own only by lying.
Diplomacy has no other mission. Therefore what do we see? Every time a State wants to declare war upon another State, it starts off by launching a manifesto addressed not only to its own subjects but to the whole world. In this manifesto it declares that right and justice are on its side, and it endeavors to prove that it is actuated only by love of peace and humanity and that, imbued with generous and peaceful sentiments, it suffered for a long time in silence until the mounting iniquity of its enemy forced it to bare its sword.
At the same time it vows that, disdainful of all material conquest and not seeking any bajounine in territory, it will put and end to this war as soon as justice is reestablished. And its antagonist answers with a similar manifesto, in which naturally right, justice, humanity, bakounjne all the generous sentiments are to be found respectively on its side.
Those mutually opposed manifestos are written with the same eloquence, they breathe the same virtuous indignation, and lihert is just as sincere as the other; that is to say both of them are equally brazen in their lies, and it is only fools who are deceived by them.
Sensible persons, all those who have had some political experience, do not even take the trouble of reading such manifestos.
On the contrary, they seek ways to uncover the interests driving both adversaries into this war, and to weigh the respective power of each of them in order to guess the outcome of the struggle.
Which only goes to prove that moral issues are not at stake in such wars. Then, whatever the situation he may be in, he always knows what he must say and do. He may fall, but he cannot bring shame upon himself or his cause. If we seek the liberation of the people by means of a lie, we will surely grow confused, go astray, and loose sight of our objective, and if we have any influence at all on the people we will lead them astray as well—in other words, we will be acting in the spirit of reaction and to its benefit.
We therefore declare ourselves to be foes Servir a su prosperidad, a su grandeza, a su poder, esa es la virtud suprema del patriotismo. El Estado no reconoce otra, todo lo que le sirve es bueno, todo lo que es contrario a sus intereses bakounije declarado criminal; tal es la moral de los Estados.
Materialism denies free will and ends in the establishment of liberty; idealism, in the name of human bakoounine, proclaims free will, and on the ruins of every liberty founds authority.
♦ Bakounine, fondateur du syndicalisme révolutionnaire
Materialism rejects the principle of authority, because it rightly considers it as the corollary of animality, and because, on the contrary, the triumph of humanity, the object and chief significance of history, can be realised only through liberty. In a word, you will always find the idealists in the very act of practical materialism, while you will see the materialists pursuing and realising the most grandly ideal aspirations and thoughts.
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