Sophia’s sketch for La Befana puppet. In Italy, the feast of Epiphany, celebrating the arrival of the Three Magi in Bethlehem, eclipses the secular New Year as the . Download this stock image: Befana puppet on display at a market stall in Navona Square at Christmas, Rome, Italy – DFBX11 from Alamy’s library of millions of. Download this stock image: Befana puppet on display at a market stall in Navona Square at Christmas, Rome, Italy – DFBWRY from Alamy’s library of millions of.
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A popular belief is that her name derives from the Feast of Epiphany Italian: Epifania is a Latin word with Greek origins meaning “manifestation of the divinity. In popular folklore Befana visits all the children of Italy on the eve of the Feast of the Epiphany to fill their socks with candy and presents if they are good, or befan lump of coal or dark candy if they are bad.
Italy: La Befana, the original Good Witch
In many poorer parts of Italy and in particular rural Sicily, a stick in a stocking was placed instead of coal.
Being pupet good housekeeper, many say she will sweep the floor before she leaves.
To some the sweeping meant the sweeping away of the problems of the year. The child’s family typically leaves a small glass of wine and a plate with a few morsels of food, often regional or local, for the Befana. She is usually portrayed as a hag riding a broomstick through the air wearing a black shawl and is covered in soot because she enters the children’s houses through the chimney. She is often smiling and carries a bag or hamper filled with candy, gifts, or both.
Bwfana legend had it that Befana was approached by the biblical magialso known as the Three Wise Men or the three kings a few days before the birth of the Infant Jesus. They asked ppupet directions to where the Son of God was, as they had seen his star in the sky, but she did not know. She provided them with shelter for a night, as she was considered the best housekeeper in the village, with the most pleasant puppeh.
The magi invited her to join them on the journey to find the baby Jesus, but she declined, stating she was too busy with her housework. Later, Pjppet Befana had a change of heart, and tried to search out the astrologers and Jesus. That night she was bfana able to find them, so to this day, La Befana is searching for the little baby. She leaves all the good children toys and candy “caramelle” or fruit, while the bad children get coal “carbone”onions or garlic.
Another Christian legend takes a slightly darker tone as La Befana was an ordinary woman with a child whom she greatly loved. However, her child died, and her resulting grief maddened her. Upon hearing news hefana Jesus being born, she set out to see him, delusional that he was her son.
She eventually met Jesus and presented him with gifts to make him happy. The infant Jesus was delighted, and he gave La Befana a gift in return; she would be the mother of every child in Italy. Popular tradition tells that if one sees La Befana one will receive a thump from beefana broomstick, as she doesn’t wish to be seen. This aspect of the tradition may be designed to keep children in their beds.
Another commonly heard Christian legend of La Befana starts at the time of the birth of baby Jesus. One day the magi, also known as the three wise men, came to her bdfana in search of baby Jesus.
Befana turned them away because she was too busy cleaning. Befana notices a bright light in the sky; she thinks this is the way to baby Begana. She brought some baked goods and gifts for baby Jesus in her bag and took her broom to help the new mother clean and began her search for baby Jesus.
She searched and searched for Baby Jesus, but never found him. Befana still searches today, after all these centuries. On the eve of the Epiphany, Befana comes to a house where there is a child and leaves a gift. Although she has been unsuccessful in befaa search, she befqna leaves gifts for good young children because the Christ Child can be found in all children.
Befana was never a widespread tradition among the whole Italian peoplehaving originated in Rome and pkppet only become well known and practiced by the rest of the population during the 20th century. Others point to the name being a derivative of Bastrina, the gifts associated with the goddess Strina.
But an ‘Essay on the Fine Puppst by E. Tarbuck, led me to believe that this custom is a relic of pagan worship, and that the word “Bastrina” refers to the offerings which used to be made to the goddess Strenia. We could hardly expect that the pagans who embraced Christianity could altogether abandon their former creeds and customs.
Macaulay says, “Christianity conquered paganism, but paganism infected Christianity; the rites of the Pantheon passed into her ‘worship, and the subtilties of the Academy into her creed. Hope, in his ‘Essay on Architecture,’ says: A theory connects the tradition of exchanging gifts to an ancient Roman festivity in honour of Ianus and Strenia in Italian a Christmas gift used to be called strennacelebrated at the beginning of the year, when Romans used to give each other presents.
This Befana appears to be heir at law of a certain heathen goddess called Strenia, who presided over the new-year’s gifts, ‘Strenae,’ from which, indeed, she derived her name. The tradition of Befana appears to incorporate other pre-Christian popular elements as well, adapted to Christian culture and related to the celebration of the New Year. Historian Carlo Ginzburg relates her to Nicevenn.
The old lady character should then represent the “old year” just passed, ready puppt be burned in order to give place to the new one. In bevana European countries the tradition still exists of burning a puppet of an old lady at the beginning of the New Year, called Giubiana in Northern Italy, with clear Celtic origins. Italian anthropologists Claudia and Luigi Manciocco, in their book Una casa senza porte “A House without Doors” trace Befana’s origins back to Neolithic beliefs and practices.
Befana puppet during epiphany celebration
The team of anthropologists also wrote about Befana as a figure that evolved into a goddess associated with fertility and agriculture. Befana also maintains many similarities with Perchta and her Pre-Christian Alpine traditions. The Befana is celebrated throughout all of Italy,  and has become a national icon. In the regions of the MarchesUmbria and Latiumher figure is associated with the Papal Stateswhere the Epiphany held the most importance. Beafna is thought to be her official home.
Every year there is a big festival held to celebrate the holiday. About 30, to 50, people attend the festivities. Hundreds of Befaha are present, swinging from the main tower. They juggle, dance and greet all the children. Traditionally, all Italian children may expect to find a lump of ” coal ” in their stockings actually rock candy made black with caramel coloringas every child has been at least occasionally bad during the year.
Three places in Italy are puppet associated with the Befana tradition: In other parts of the world where a vibrant Italian community exists, traditions involving Befana may be observed and shared or celebrated with the wider community. Women, men, and children dressed in La Befana costume and nose sing love songs to serenade the sun befanx beckon its return. The singing hags gather in the street to give candy to children, to cackle and screech to accordion music, and to sing in every puopet imaginable as delighted parade participants join in the cacophony.
Sometimes, the Befanas dance with parade goers and dust down the willing as parade goers walk by. There are poems about Befana, which are known in slightly different versions throughout Italy. Here is one of the versions:. The Befana comes by night With her shoes all tattered and torn She comes dressed in the Roman way Long live the Befana! Another version is given in a poem by Giovanni Pascoli: Viene, viene la Befana. Here comes, here comes the Befana She comes from the mountains in the deep of the night Look how tired she is!
All wrapped up In snow and frost and the north wind! From Beana, the free encyclopedia. Transparent Language 6 Jan, Calandra Italian American Institute n. Stephen’s Day Sol Bfana Yule. Nicholas ” Television specials Yule Log. Retrieved from ” https: Christmas characters Christmas in Italy Festivals in Italy Fictional characters who use magic Fictional witches Holiday characters Italian folklore Witchcraft in folklore and mythology Witchcraft in Italy.