Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr. is a tropical plant that has been used as a spice and in traditional medicine. B. pandurata contains various bioactive. This plant has 8 different botanical names which are Boesenbergia cochinchinensis (Gagnep.) Loes., Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr. The medicinal plant, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties;.

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Boesenbergia rotunda is a herb from the Boesenbergia genera under the Zingiberaceae family. The popularity of its ethnomedicinal usage has drawn the attention of scientists worldwide to further investigate its medicinal properties. Advancement in drug design and discovery research has led to the development of synthetic drugs from B. Furthermore, with the advent of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, new insights on the biosynthetic pathways of B.

The bboesenbergia biological activities exhibited by the compounds obtained from B. This species belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae. It was previously categorised under the Kaempferia genus by Baker. However, it is now classified under the Boesenbergia genus [ 1 ]. This plant has 8 different botanical names which are Boesenbergia cochinchinensis Gagnep. Alston, Kaempferia cochinchinensis Gagnep. Boesenbergia is amongst the genera facing problems boexenbergia taxonomy classification due to its heterogeneous external morphology.

Eksomtramage and Boontum [ 8 ] have distinguished between B. The chromosome count 2 n for B. On the other hand, the chromosome count for B. These results were reconfirmed in [ 89 ].

The morphology of this ginger species has been well characterized. Its leaves are broad and light green while the leaf sheath is red. The underground portion of the plant consists of a small globular shaped central subterraneous rhizome 1. The tubers are about 1.

The tissue of the tuber is looser, softer, and more watery than the central rhizome. Panduarta the colour of the central rhizome and the tubers are dependent on the variety of B.

The yellow variety produces bright yellow rhizomes, while other varieties produce red and black rhizomes.

They are strongly aromatic although different from each other. The flowers are scarlet and bloom throughout the year in tropical countries. These beautiful flowers are usually hidden at the base of the foliage, making them unnoticeable.

The morphology of B. The morphology of yellow rhizome B. Whole plant of B. It is normally cultivated at small home ranches and used as a condiment in food such as curry and soup due to its aromatic flavour, which promotes appetite.

This herbal plant is also used as a traditional medicine to treat illnesses such as rheumatism, muscle pain, febrifuge, gout, gastrointestinal disorders, flatulence, carminative, stomach ache, dyspepsia, and peptic ulcer. The fresh rhizomes are used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as dental caries, dermatitis, dry cough and cold, tooth and gum diseases, swelling, wounds, diarrhoea, and dysentery, and as a diuretic [ 1314 ].

Besides, it is also used as boesfnbergia antifungal and antiparasitic agent to heal fungal infections and eradicate helminth or round worms in human intestine, respectively, as well as an antiscabies agent to relieve skin itchiness from mite bites [ 15 ].


Boesenbergia rotunda – Wikipedia

In addition, consumption of its leaves has been shown pandurat alleviate food allergies and poisoning. Despite the lack of scientific evidence to prove the ethnomedicinal uses of this ginger, the boeaenbergia of current biological researches could potentially explain the significance of its traditional usage.

Over the years, using various approaches and technologies, researchers have successfully isolated an array of bioactive compounds from B.

Nearly a hundred of compounds were boesennergia and elucidated, ranging from the flavonoid derivatives, chalcone derivatives, boesenbrrgia, kawains, terpenes and terpenoids see supplementary data 1 available online at doi: These compounds have shown to exhibit great medicinal potential Table 2which will be described in more details on the following subtopics.

Bioactive compounds that were extracted from the leaves, stems, and rhizomes of B. Given the pamdurata consumption of B.

Furthermore, all haematological and histopathological parameters used to evaluate the toxicity effect did not show any adverse changes [ 40 ].

Meanwhile, Charoensin et al. Helicobacter pylori is a prominent Gram-negative bacteria that causes gastritis, dyspepsia, and peptic ulcer and has been linked to the development of gastric and colon cancer. Widespread claims of the antimicrobial activities of B. Pinostrobin and red oil from the roots of B. Interestingly, while both extracts inhibited H. The ethanolic extract of B. Treated gerbils showed reduced acute and chronic inflammation when fed with B.

Therefore, flavonoid components of B. Pathogenic bacteria are a group of bacteria that induce diseases in humans and plants.

Spoilage bacteria are another group of bacteria that cause food spoilage through fermentation and panduratw of food products. There boeswnbergia been a rising concern pertaining to food safety and diseases caused by these pathogenic microorganisms, and hence, a renewed interest in finding new antimicrobial agents to combat these pathogens. InPattaratanawadee et al.

PD26 and PD and Lactobacillus cellobiosus: Aureus, with an MIC value of 0. Meanwhile, galangal extract showed strongest inhibition against spoilage bacteria L.

Panduratin A of B. Amoebiasis is an infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolyticawhich typically causes acute and chronic diarrhoea panduata HIV patients, regardless of whether they have AIDS. The use of local medicinal plants to treat this disease is popular due in part to its safety, ease of access boesebergia availability at low cost.

A Previous study on thirty nine extracts from twelve local herbs reported that seven of the plant herbs, Murraya paniculataZingiber zerumbet, Alpinia galangaBarleria lupulinaB. Based on the scoring standard of 1 to 4 with 1 indicating the highest inhibition and 4 showing no inhibition, all the seven plants scored a 1. The chloroform extracts of A. The inhibitory activity of B. Giardiasis is the inflammation of the small intestine which causes diarrhoea and nutrient deficiencies, although this parasitic infection can cause chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients.

The chloroform extracts of B. Although the effect of panxurata plant extracts paled in comparison to metronidazole, a commercial antibiotic with an IC 50 value of 0. Biofilm formation on teeth surfaces boeesenbergia caused by multiple species of oral bacteria, the primary colonisers being mutant Streptococci [ 72 ].


Biofilm formation is associated with several acute and chronic infections such as dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis and potentially contributes to antibiotic treatment failure against Streptococcus pyogenes [ 48 ]. InLimsuwan and Voravuthikunchai demonstrated that boesenbegria extracts from B.

Antiquorum sensing test revealed that B. However, microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay showed no changes in the cell-surface hydrophobicity of treated bacteria [ 48 ]. The following year, Yanti et al. Mucin-mixed panduratin A at concentrations between 0. Biofilm reduction effect was determined by further treating the bacteria with different concentrations of panduratin A 0. These results suggested that panduratin A can potentially be used to prevent colonisation of multispecies bacteria, under a dose-dependent manner, and that its effect is equal to commercially available synthetic drugs such as chlorhexidine gluconate [ 49 pandurara.

A study conducted by Yanti et al. InYanti et al. Several studies have boesenbefgia the potential antifungal role of B. A study conducted by Cheeptham and Towers [ 51 ] boesenbergiaa the antifungal activity of B. The activation of the antimicrobial activity was found to be light mediated, as treatment performed in the dark showed no fungal inhibition [ 51 ].

InTaweechaisupapong et al. The extracts were screened against 4 oral pathogens, namely, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp. Results from their study showed that B. The MIC for S.

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Fungistatic activity was observed at concentrations of 1 and 1. These studies show that B.

Dental caries or tooth decay cavity is a common disease caused by the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. These acid-producing bacteria cause damage to the tooth in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose and fructose, which wash away the mineral fluoride from the tooth, often resulting in tooth ache, or to a severe extent, death. The anticariogenic activity of B.

Antibacterial and bactericidal activities of B. Further isolation and purification of B.

This compound conferred inhibitory properties against S. This compound also showed similar inhibitory activity towards S. Candidal adhesion is an essential mechanism pandkrata Candida species to adhere to the oral surfaces to colonise the mouth and cause oral diseases. Sroisiri and Boonyanit [ 55 ] recently reported that the rhizome extract of B. Pretreatment of the dentures with B.

Ergo, it is theorised that candidal adhesion can possibly be reduced by soaking acrylic dentures in B. Halistosis or bad breath is a condition where the mouth produces an unpleasant odor when exhaling. This situation is typically associated with oral conditions such as gum diseases and oral hygiene. It can also be caused by the odour from esophagus, tonsil, nose, and stomach.