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Synergetics is the empirical study of systems in transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by the behavior of any isolated components, including humanity’s role as both participant and observer.

Since systems are identifiable at every scale from the quantum level to the cosmic, and humanity both articulates the behavior of these systems and is composed of these systems, synergetics is a very broad discipline, and embraces a broad range of scientific and philosophical buckkinster including tetrahedral and close-packed-sphere geometries, thermodynamicschemistrypsychologybiochemistryeconomicsphilosophy and theology.

Despite a few mainstream endorsements such as articles by Arthur Loeb and the naming of a molecule ” buckminsterfullerene “, synergetics remains an iconoclastic subject ignored by most traditional curricula and academic departments.

Buckminster Fuller coined the term and attempted to define its scope in his two-volume work Synergetics. Haken explored self-organizing structures of open systems far from thermodynamic equilibriumAmy Edmondson explored tetrahedral and icosahedral geometry, Stafford Beer tackled geodesics in the context of social dynamics, and Nystrom proposed a theory of computational cosmography. Buckminster Fuller in his two books Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking and Synergetics 2: Explorations synergrtics the Geometry of Thinking as:.

A system of duller employing degree vectorial coordination comprehensive to both physics and chemistry, and to both arithmetic and geometry, in rational whole numbers Synergetics explains much that has not been previously illuminated Synergetics follows the cosmic logic of the structural mathematics strategies of nature, which employ the paired sets of the six angular degrees of freedom, frequencies, and vectorially economical actions and their multi-alternative, equi-economical action options Synergetics discloses the excruciating awkwardness characterizing present-day mathematical treatment of the interrelationships of the independent scientific buckmintser as originally occasioned by their mutual and separate lacks of awareness of the existence of a comprehensive, rational, coordinating system inherent in nature.

Other passages in Synergetics that outline the subject are its introduction The Wellspring of Reality and bukminster section on Nature’s Coordination The chapter on Operational Syneregtics So this chapter can help a new reader become familiar with Fuller’s approach, style and geometry.

One of Synergegics clearest expositions on “the geometry of thinking” occurs in the two part essay “Omnidirectional Halo” which appears in his book No More Secondhand God. Amy Edmondson describes synergetics “in the broadest terms, as the study of spatial complexity, and as such is an inherently comprehensive discipline. Here’s an abridged list of some of the discoveries Fuller claims for Synergetics again quoting directly:. buckminsfer

Synergetics (Fuller)

Several authors have tried to characterize the importance synergefics synergetics. Amy Edmonson asserts that “Experience with synergetisc encourages a new way of approaching and solving problems. Its emphasis on visual and spatial phenomena combined with Fuller’s holistic approach fosters synergdtics kind of lateral thinking which so often leads to creative breakthroughs. A chief hallmark of this system of mensuration was its unit of volume: This tetrahedron anchored a set of concentrically arranged polyhedra proportioned in a canonical manner and inter-connected by a twisting-contracting, inside-outing dynamic named the Jitterbug Transformation.

Corresponding to Fuller’s use of a regular tetrahedron as his unit of volume was his replacing the cube as his model of 3rd powering. Frequency and size are the same phenomenon. Prime means sizeless, timeless, subfrequency. Prime is generalized, a metaphysical conceptualization experience, not a special case Generalized principles scientific lawsalthough communicated energetically, did not inhere in the “special case” episodes, were considered “metaphysical” in that sense.

An energy event is always special case. Syergetics we have experienced energy, we have special case. The physicist’s first definition of physical is that it is an experience that is extracorporeally, remotely, instrumentally apprehensible.


Metaphysical includes all the experiences that are excluded by the definition of physical. Metaphysical is always bukminster principle.

Tetrahedral mensuration also involved substituting what Fuller called the “isotropic vector matrix” IVM for the standard XYZ coordinate system, as his principal conceptual backdrop for special case physicality:.

The synergetics coordinate system — in contradistinction to the XYZ coordinate system — is linearly referenced to the unit-vector-length edges of the regular buckminter, each of whose six unit vector edges occur in the isotropic vector matrix as the diagonals of the cube’s six faces.

The IVM scaffolding or skeletal framework was defined by cubic closest packed spheres CCPalternatively known as the FCC or face-centered cubic lattice, or as the octet truss in architecture on which Fuller held a patent. The space-filling complementary tetrahedra and octahedra characterizing this matrix had prefrequency volumes 1 and 4 respectively see above.

A third consequence of switching to tetrahedral mensuration was Fuller’s review of the standard “dimension” concept. Whereas “height, width and depth” fkller been promulgated as three distinct dimensions within the Euclidean context, each with its own independence, Fuller considered the tetrahedron fullet minimal starting point for spatial cognition.

His use of “4D” was in many passages close to synonymous with the ordinary meaning of “3D,” with the dimensions of physicality time, mass considered additional dimensions.

Table of Contents

Geometers and “schooled” people speak of length, breadth, and height as constituting a hierarchy of three independent dimensional states — “one-dimensional,” “two-dimensional,” and “three-dimensional” — which can be conjoined like building blocks.

But length, breadth, and height simply do not exist independently of one another nor independently of all the inherent characteristics of all systems and of all systems’ inherent complex of interrelationships with Scenario Universe All conceptual consideration is inherently four-dimensional. Thus the primitive is a priori four-dimensional, always based on the four planes of reference of the tetrahedron. There can never be less than four primitive dimensions.

Synergetics | The Buckminster Fuller Institute

Any buckminzter of the stars or point-to-able “points” is a system-ultratunable, tunable, or infratunable but inherently four-dimensional. Synergetics did not aim to replace or invalidate pre-existing geometry or mathematics, it was designed to carve out a new foundation with a language that would serve to provide a new source of insights.

Fuller’s geometric explorations provided an experiential basis for designing and refining a philosophical language. His overarching concern was the symergetics relationship between tensile and compressive tendencies within an eternally regenerative Universe. His Universe was “non-simultaneously conceptual”:. Because of the fundamental nonsimultaneity of universal structuring, a single, simultaneous, static model of Universe is inherently both nonexistent and conceptually impossible as well as unnecessary.

Ergo, Universe does not have a shape. Do not waste your time, as man has been doing for ages, trying to think of a unit shape “outside of which there must be something,” or “within which, at center, there must be a smaller something. Synergetics also distinguished between gravitational and precessional relationships among moving bodies, the latter referring to the vast majority of cosmic relationships, which are nondegree and do not involve bodies “falling in” to one another Fuller took an intuitive approach to his studies, often going into exhaustive empirical detail while at the same time seeking to cast his findings in their most general philosophical context.

Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking by R. Buckminster Fuller

For example, his sphere packing studies led him to generalize a formula for polyhedral numbers: He then related the “multiplicative 2” and “additive 2” in this formula to the convex versus concave aspects of shapes, and to their polar spinnability respectively.

These same polyhedra, developed through sphere packing synergetifs related by tetrahedral mensuration, he then spun around their various poles to form great circle networks and corresponding triangular tiles on the surface of a sphere.

He exhaustively cataloged the central and surface angles of these spherical triangles and their related chord factors. Fuller was continually on the lookout for ways to connect the dots, often purely speculatively. As an example of “dot connecting” he sought to relate the basic disequilibrium LCD triangles of the spherical icosahedron to the plane net of his A module. The Jitterbug Transformation provided a unifying dynamic in this work, with much significance attached to the doubling and quadrupling of edges that occurred, when a cuboctahedron is collapsed through icosahedral, octahedral and tetrahedral stages, then inside-outed and re-expanded in a complementary fashion.


The JT formed a bridge between 3,4-fold rotationally symmetric shapes, and the 5-fold family, such as a rhombic triacontahedron, which later he analyzed in terms of the T module, another tetrahedral wedge with the same volume as his A and Fulleg modules.

He modeled energy transfer between systems by means of the double-edged octahedron and its ability to turn into a spiral tetrahelix. Energy lost to one system always reappeared somewhere else in his Universe.

He modeled a threshold between associative and disassociative energy patterns with his T-to-E module transformation “E” for “Einstein”. His demystification of a gyroscope’s behavior in terms of a hammer thrower, pea shooter, and garden hose, is a good example of his commitment to using accessible metaphors. His modular dissection of a space-filling tetrahedron or MITE minimum tetrahedron into 2 A and 1 B module served as a basis for more speculations about energy, the former being more energy conservative, the latter more dissipative in his analysis.

His focus was reminiscent of later cellular automaton studies in that tessellating modules would affect their neighbors over successive time intervals. Synergetics informed Fuller’s social analysis of the human condition. He remained concerned that humanity’s conditioned reflexes were not keeping pace with its engineering potential, emphasizing the “touch and go” nature of our current predicament. Fuller hoped the streamlining effects of a more degree-based approach within natural philosophy would help bridge the gap between C.

Snow’s “two cultures” and result in a greater level of scientific literacy in the general population. Fuller hoped to gain traction for his ideas and nomenclature by dedicating Synergetics to H.

Arthur Loeb provided a prologue and an appendix to Synergetics discussing its overlap with crystallography, chemistry and virology. A major error, caught by Fuller himself, involved a misapplication of his Synergetics Constant in Synergetics 1which led to the mistaken belief he had discovered a radius 1 sphere of 5 tetravolumes.

Synergetics refers to synergy: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article’s tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia’s guide to writing better articles for suggestions. For other uses, see Synergetics disambiguation. No More Secondhand God. Further musings on the computational cosmograph”. The Synergetic Geometry of R. Subfields of and scientists involved in cybernetics. Polycontexturality Second-order cybernetics Catastrophe theory Connectionism Control theory Decision theory Engineering cybernetics Information theory Semiotics Synergetics Biological cybernetics Biosemiotics Biomedical cybernetics Biorobotics Computational neuroscience Homeostasis Management cybernetics Medical cybernetics Neurocybernetics Sociocybernetics Emergence Artificial intelligence.

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