Trait data. population trend, Stable. habitat, protected area terrestrial biome terrestrial habitat. conservation status, least concern. primary diet, fruit fruit plants. Chiroptera · Phyllostomidae · Carollia sowelli Carollia sowelli. Sowell’s Short- tailed Bat. Order: Chiroptera Family: Phyllostomidae. SpeciesCarollia sowelliSowell’s short-tailed bat. ADW Pocket Guides on the iOS App Store! The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket.
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The small-sized frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata is an understory specialist and occurs in a wide range of lowland habitats, tending to be more common in tropical dry or moist forests of South and Central America. Its sister species, Carollia brevicaudaoccurs almost exclusively in the Amazon rainforest.
A recent phylogeographic study proposed a hypothesis of origin and subsequent diversification for C. Additionally, it also found two allopatric clades for C. We used cytochrome b gene sequences and a more extensive sampling to test hypotheses related to the origin and diversification of C. The results obtained indicate that there are two sympatric evolutionary lineages within each species. Coalescent analysis points to a simultaneous origin for C.
The phylogeographic pattern shown by C. In the last four decades, biodiversity researchers worldwide have proposed different models and mechanisms to explain the gigantic and unique species richness of the Neotropical rainforests, including the Amazon and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biomes. Consequently, various hypotheses have been established: However, the alternative hypotheses underlying the rich Neotropical biodiversity are still vigorously debated, as well as the relative contribution of different factors and mechanisms.
The field of phylogeography, which comprises comparisons of phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges among intraspecific evolutionary lineages and species, has provided a better understanding of Neotropical biogeography, as well as the identification of areas of endemism.
Phylogeographic studies that focus on Neotropical vertebrate species have been important for testing these current biogeographic models, and provide empirical evidence that corroborates or refuse biogeographical hypotheses. However, it was shown that these predictions could only be applied for high latitude populations, and not for the Amazonian ones. A high congruence was found between the models and pollen records.
They predicted the existence of a large and stable forest refuge in the state of Bahia, in the northeast of Brazil, and smaller refuges located along the Brazilian coast: Although there are many phylogeographic studies on Neotropical mammals, only recently have bats become more represented in this literature.
Bats are small mammals with an ability of powered flight that provides them a large capacity for long-distance dispersal compared to the low vagility shown by nonflying mammals.
Consequently, bats may show markedly different phylogeographic patterns for their haplotype lineages compared to rodents and marsupials Ditchfield, A general phylogeographic pattern observed in Neotropical bats was described by Ditchfieldwho analyzed 17 species, using a bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene cyt b. In general, this work revealed very low or none levels of phylogeographic structure in some species of bats.
However, a number of factors such as feeding habits, roost site fidelity, colony structure, and dispersal patterns can influence the distribution of genealogical lineages and many studies have shown that a phylogeographic structure exists in bats Larsen et al. Although the majority of studies investigated the molecular systematics of genera, they revealed a cryptic diversity for some taxa such as Artibeus obscurusArtibeus jamaicensis Larsen et al.
The short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata Linnaeus is a widely distributed species, ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina, including Paraguay and Brazil Pine,being the most abundant and the most widespread member of its genus Fleming, This small-sized frugivorous bat is an understory generalist that can also be found in open areas Fleming, Although it occurs in a wide range of lowland habitats, it tends to be more common in tropical dry or moist forests than in tropical wet forests.
Carollia perspicillata is an important seed disperser, especially for pioneer plants, such as VismiaSolanumand Piperfeeding preferably from the latter Fleming, ; Charles-Dominique, Because of its higher abundance in secondary than in pristine forests, C.
Also, because of its wide geographic distribution, abundance and foraging behaviour, C. In his classical systematic revision of CarolliaPine noted that intraspecific variation exists within the species of the genus, although he did not quantify this variation.
Pine treated C. Carollia perspicillata aztecaCarollia perspicillata perspicillataand Carollia perspicillata tricolor. Accordingly, specimens from north and west of the Amazon Basin were assigned to C.
In a reanalysis of the specimens, McLellan did not find a clear distinction among Mexican and Ccarollia American populations sampled from South American samples, in correspondence with the North American C. It was concluded that no subspecies exist on the basis of cranial and mandibular measurements. The first study presenting the phylogeographic pattern for C. This pattern was attributed to possible forest fragmentation with open areas.
The Amazon samples analyzed presented both new haplotypes or shared haplotypes with north-east Atlantic Forest. These authors described the clade that includes C.
On the basis of the data obtained, bit without using any time estimation method, they suggested that these two species arrived and diversified in South America at a similar time, as a consequence of an historical event that separated the Atlantic Forest originating C.
At the intraspecific level, two allopatric clades for C. On the basis on this topology, it sowe,li suggested that South America would have been the original area of diversification for the species, probably along the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil where the basal haplotype is located.
The study aimed to answer the following questions: If so, can we date such an event and correlate it with geological and historical events in South America? We analyzed 96 individuals of C. The dataset included the 12 sequences of C.
A total of 80 samples, from 39 localities, including those analyzed by Ditchfieldwere used for C. The published sequences of Carollia castaneaCarollia sowelliand Carollia subrufa deposited at GenBank were also used as outgroups.
The individuals and localities sampled in the present study, as well as the institutions where the vouchers are located, are provided in the Appendix Table A1.
Sowell’s Short-tailed Bat (Carollia sowelli) ·
Triangles in both maps represents samples retrieved from the literature. The primers and protocols used for the polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the complete mitochondrial cyt b gene were conducted as described previously Redondo et al.
Three different phylogenetic methods were used: The MP analysis was performed by means of heuristic searches, with replicates of random addition of taxa and tree—bisection reconnection TBR. Diversity patterns of both species were explored using estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, as well as genetic divergences between intraspecific groups.
Tajima’s D neutrality test Tajima,using intraspecific genetic variability, was performed to verify population expansions, using the software packages DNAsp, version 4. Tree priors were generated using the coalescent with constant population size and a relaxed clock drawn from an uncorrelated exponential distribution Drummond et al.
The prior for the rate of evolution was drawn from a normal distribution with mean of 2. The Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis used 40 generations sampling every generations; the first 10 steps were discarded as burn-in. The complete cyt b gene bp was sequenced in all specimens. Sequences from 65 individuals, each of them presenting a different haplotype, were submitted to GenBank, under accession numbers FJ—FJ Among the aligned sites, nucleotide substitutions were found, of which were transitions and 44 were transversions; there were polymorphic sites.
The data set comprised aligned sites, of which 98 were nucleotide substitutions, 84 were transitions, and 14 were transversions. There were 95 polymorphic positions. The mean intraspecific divergence p -distance within C.
The two species are monophyletic with high bootstrap support values.
General topology showing the intraspecific lineages of Carollia perspicillata and Carollia brevicaudawith three different phylogenetic support methods: Black arrows show C. There are two distinct clades in C.
Sowell’s short-tailed bat (Carollia sowelli)
However, the addition of four new samples from Brazil farollia the existence of a contact zone between those clades in the locality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, AM, located on the left margin of Rio Negro. In this locality, two individuals bearing haplotypes belonging to different clades were sampled AD and AD ; Fig.
This points to a sympatry of divergent lineages, contrary to the allopatric distribution proposed before; thus, it may be sowellii secondary contact zone. All phylogenetic analyses resulted in the same clades for C. Carollia perspicillata presents a more complex pattern. There are two main clades for crollia species: The same topology was found by all phylogenetic methods, with bootstrap support and high Bayesian posterior probabilities.
Regarding the subspecies described by Pinethe genetic lineages found here for C. High support values for these phylogroups were found only for the Bayesian analysis.
The South-east clade contains predominantly individuals from the Brazilian Southern Atlantic Forest with only one exception coming from the Cerrado MM This observation can be explained by incomplete lineage sorting or by contemporary migration.
The Widespread clade is composed by individuals coming from all Biomes studied including Northern and Southern Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, and Amazon.
The Bayesian trees showing the detailed phylogenetic relationships between individuals of C. Nevertheless, the present analysis shows a distinct phylogenetic relationship among the lineages of C.
Consequently, based on this sister lineage, the results of the present study do not support the previous hypothesis regarding the origin of C. The haplotype network data not shown has also detected the same pattern of haplotype carollai as depicted in Figure 2including all clades and subdivisions for both species.
The neutrality test result, however, showed distinct values for each species, indicating a history of recent expansion in population size only for C. These results suggest a more recent colonization time of the Southern Atlantic Forest, where the South-east clade appears almost exclusively. Tajima’s D -test showed significant negative values in both groups. However, the comparison of Tajima’s neutrality tests between these groups showed a greater value for the South-east clade.
This difference is also highlighted by a mismatch distribution analysis data not show. However, Tajima’s test was only significant in the latter case Table 2. Sample sizes Nhaplotype numbers hTajima’s D neutrality test with their respective P -values, and time to the most recent common ancestor T MRCA for both lineages of Carollia perspicillata and Carollia brevicauda.
However, it is known that a non-neutral model of population growth influences the T MRCA estimate, meaning that values found by this method can be underestimated in cases where the population analyzed has gone through a bottleneck Wakeley, Because the neutrality tests suggest that C. We consider, however, that the difference between the T MRCA in both species is minimal, and this result allows us to suggest that they originated almost simultaneously following vicariant events in the Amazon during the Pleistocene.
As a test, a simple parsimony area analysis using the locations of the haplotypes indicated in Figure 2 shows that the common ancestor of both C. Therefore, it is very likely that the same historical process is responsible for the patterns described for both species.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Carollia brevicauda presents caroplia main evolutionary lineages, the first including individuals from the Guyana shield and the second covering localities from Panama to the Bolivian and Brazilian Amazon. These lineages are sympatric, at least in part of their geographic ranges.
They present a contact zone in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, where two individuals from the same locality had haplotypes from different lineages.