med. choroba beri-beri. (pathology) An ailment caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). An ailment caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1), . Download Citation on ResearchGate | The structure of vitamin B1 | In the s, vitamins and hormones were very ‘fashionable’ fields in biochemistry. The first. Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine.[1] A severe and chronic form is known as beriberi.[1][5] There are two main types in adults.

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Ambassador of Poland to Chile and Bolivia — and Argentina — Co-editor of Medical Review – Auschwitz.

Christiaan Eijkman – Wikipédia

Only minor and incidental contributions have been published hitherto in the Polish literature on the subject of pseudo-medical experiments conducted in diverse Nazi camps. There has been considerable confusion over the various types of illicit activities practised by SS doctors and orderlies, who for example did their medical training by carrying out surgery on prisoners.

Such actions have sometimes been mistaken for medical experiments.

Various attitudes have been taken to such activities so far in Polish publications, and in general there has been little or no consistency in the way chorobq have been treated. The Nazis deliberately destroyed the records of these activities, hence the research which is being done today is based on the surviving remnants of the documentary evidence, the chhoroba made by the organisers of these experiments, the testimonials given by victims and their medical examinations.

The chief aim of this article is to consider the medical, ethical, moral and legal aspects which come to light in the context of publications on pseudo-medical experiments, and to differentiate between the criteria defining pseudo-medical experiments from those which define therapeutic experiments.

One of the types of biological experiments carried out on humans are those which are done to increase the number of individuals who are to learn the already chorpba laws or methods. Experimental methods were first introduced in research on inanimate nature, in disciplines such as mechanics, physics, and chemistry, but not until the 17th century in the biological sciences. However, biological experiments on human subjects were widespread already by the turn of the 19th and 20th century.

Experiments were conducted in which humans were infected with syphilis Wallace, Walter, Lindwurm et al. Children were given earthworm embryos in their food Epstein, Grassi, and Calandruciand they were also infected with scarlet fever.

Nonetheless the experiments continued, involving whooping cough, beriberi, bubonic plague, leprosy, pellagra, malaria, and polio. They were carried out mostly on prisoners, convicts sentenced to death, the incurably ill, children, the mentally ill, and the natives of colonial countries.

Despite protests by many people and appeals to morality, the legal issues associated with the phenomenon were never addressed. The basic aim of chofoba biological experiments conducted here was to find the fastest, cheapest and most efficient method of sterilisation, in order to wipe out whole nations. The infamous sterilisation experiments conducted by Clauberg were done on specially selected women between the ages of 20 and 40 who had given birth and had not stopped menstruating in the camp Fejkiel, Victims of the experiment fell ill with inflammation of various parts of the reproductive organs.

The exact number is not known, but has been estimated in the hundreds. Josef Mengele, nicknamed The Angel of Death. Many women died after these irradiations.

Those who survived were subjected after three months to two check-up operations, in which their ovaries were successively removed and examined. The aftereffects of these experiments were not only infertility and castration, but also complications such as burns and abscesses, especially in the abdominal wall and reproductive organs. There were also attempts to artificially inseminate women, which were conducted in association with sterilisation experiments.


For instance, limb amputations were done on patients suffering from ulcers. Other operations done on no grounds were laparotomies, hernia operations, the extraction of nerves, muscles, and bones.

Labour was induced in pregnant women for no reason. The changes occurring in various organs were observed for diverse diseases, including starvation sickness Kowalczykowa, Experiments were conducted involving infectious diseases such as typhus, tuberculosis, malaria, and phlegmon Fejkiel, Healthy individuals were artificially infected with injections chorova the blood of persons suffering from typhus.

There were also determinations of the quarantine time needed following typhus. Also certain unspecified anti-typhus vaccines were tested.

Blood group determinations were carried out and blood components were determined on the basis of saliva tests. Documents relating to the pharmacological experiments show that experiments involving eleudron and sulphapyridine which had been started in Dachau continued in Auschwitz.

There were also large-scale experiments with the use of substances called Be, Be,rutenol and periston. Many of the individuals subjected to these mass experiments died, and many developed painful diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, blackouts, and circulatory disorders.

Another notorious type of experiment involved the application of narcotics, the beru of which was probably to make subjects disclose information. An injection containing the drug mescaline perhaps? Vast numbers of victims, mercilessness, cruelty and criminality motivated by chorooba lowest impulses — such were the lengths to which the experimenters went.

Biological experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, chorroba Polish women, but also women of other nationalities, including mentally ill women Klimek, Experimental operations were done only on healthy, well-built young women who were political prisoners. Most of them were subjected to several operations, some even as many as six times. The following types of biological experiments were conducted:.

Operations done to examine the effects of surgical infections by pus-forming microorganisms, usually Staphylococcus aureus, malignant oedema, gas gangrene, or tetanus germs injected into the calf muscles or inserted into an open wound. The experiments were done to test the therapeutic properties of sulphonamide drugs and other medications, which were put into the infected wound. The blood vessels at both ends of the wound were constricted to prevent blood flow, which was to simulate the prevalent conditions in battlefield wounds.

This was also why the infection was aggravated by having broken glass, sawdust, and pieces of fabric rubbed into the wound. Aseptic bone, muscle and neural operations. Their aim was to observe cell regeneration. Three types of bone operation were practised: Neural operations involved the choeoba of some of the nerves in the lower leg. Chroba first these operations were performed in operating theatres in aseptic conditions. Later, when the women started to resist, operations were done berl.

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Victims were operated in their clothes and did not even have their legs washed. It has been estimated that out of the large number of Polish women who were victims of these experiments 3.

Many other completely unwarranted operations were carried out on human guinea pigs apart from these biological experiments, for instance resections of the stomach or removal of the thyroid gland. We know of cases of epileptics having the adrenal glands removed, and these glands being subsequently transplanted into bronchial asthmatics. Women were sterilised by having the middle part or the whole of their ovaries removed. These operations were done on mentally ill German women and young Roma women, some of them -year-old girls.

The extreme attitude adopted by German doctors on biological experiments was an outcome of the Nazi principle that doctors had an absolute right to conduct experiments on prisoners whenever such experiments were justified by scientific or national interests. Under low pressure conditions disturbed behaviours were observed.


Prisoners would tear out their hair, scratch their faces with their nails, beat their heads against the wall, or howl until they became unconscious.

When the pressure was increased prisoners were observed to undergo profound disturbances of consciousness. Those who survived the experiment suffered from severe shock and mental disorders due to cerebral haemorrhage. Autopsies were carried out on the victims, some of whom were still alive.

Samples were removed from their brains, necks, lungs, sympathetic nervous system, liver, heart muscles, kidneys, and muscles geri their limbs. This material was then conserved. Lumps of ice would be put into the water to keep the temperature low.

The experiment would last for anything up to 36 hours, or even more. Low-temperature experiments were also carried out in atmospheric conditions. Every hour they were doused down with cold water and their temperature was taken. These were the brei experiments conducted in Dachau, and most of the victims died. Only those individuals whose physical condition allowed them to have sexual intercourse were warmed up exceptionally fast and recovered their normal condition.

German Nazi doctors conducting pseudo-medical experiments. They were divided into five groups. Blood, urine, faeces, and saliva samples were taken every day. The effects of the experiment were very severe, but none of the victims died. Anopheles maculipennis mosquitos were bred in special cages and fed on flies.

Quinine, and neosalvarsan were tested as treatments. Over 2, victims, chiefly Polish Roman Catholic priests, were infected with the disease, and about of them died, many of them due to berk toxic effects of antipyrine and pyramidon, which were administered to bring down fever, and of salvarsan, which caused acute yellow atrophy of the liver.

Another type of experiment carried out concerned phlegmon. Many of the victims of these experiments died due to disseminated infection. Others developed abscesses on their entire body. When victims were treated with sulphonamides healing was delayed, and muscular, cardiac, hepatic, ber and pulmonary dystrophy would be observed in post-mortems. There were other experiments connected with jaundice.

Geri victims were operated. Experimental methods were used to treat prisoners suffering from tuberculosis. They were given calcium, codeine, pneumothorax treatment and other surgery. Some of them were kept in bed with no medications or additional food. Others received homeopathic treatment, and the remaining tuberculosis sufferers were told to take exercise, walks, cuoroba cold baths. The number of prisoners subjected to these experiments is not known, but we do know that they were sent to the Hartheim gas chambers.

Many prisoners paid berk their lives for such experiments: Some victims had limbs amputated, and blood vessels from them were transplanted into other victims. Several sterilisations were performed, but we have no further data on them. These figures are incomplete, as we do not have data on all the experiments. The Nuremberg Code is as follows:. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.

This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make berri understanding and enlightened decision.