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This fact is specially relevant in physiotherapy. Nevertherless, it is not always possible to have the more up-dated technology. From these thoughts, our roots arise: These techniques have years of history in Europe, but they are not common in our country.

These manual therapies were initially pure empirism, but today they have become highy advanced arthrocimematic and biomechanical analysis through which we have been able to understand well-known elements little studied for years. This is kkaltenborn reason why myself and other graduates from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos are engaged to relaunch manual therapy techniques which are extremely important as it has been demonstrated as a tool for the evaluating development and for physiotherapy treatment.

Orthopedic kaltenbborn physiotherapy OMT is cnocepto valuable field that enriches the professional concepti appreciates its concept, stimulating both perception and analyisis. I have decided to write this small summary of Anatomy, Biomechanics and treatment of the sacroiliacus joint evoluation ASI in the wide concept of manual therapies and in a practical way because there is a large number of cases that are seen everyday in the Clinic.

It is actually complementary because many backaches are related to the fibrous lumbar ring or to a ASI malfunction. Both factors, being isolated or together, have as a consequence a lumbar problem. Even very similar concspto may have kaltenbrn origin in different structures, as we will see by the time to travel in depth into the analysis. It is not my personal will that this short document neither is taken literally, nor becomes a manual for treatment and evoluation.

I hope that the readers of this short, but jet intensive summary, feels motivated to research about manual therapies and makes his own judgement out of them. This is really the reason for this piece of kqltenborn. You will see in this virgin field a fascinating world which will open your mind and will give you excellent tools to increase your professional development.

The invitation has already been done: The pelvic girdle is the base of the trunk. It is the structure that holds the abdomen and that joins the lower limbs to the trunk. It is an osteoarticular closed ring made up of three bone pieces and three joints. The three bone pieces are: Some professionals think that this joint is a amphiarthrosis, therefore it is uncapable of doing movements with the exception of woman delivery.


It is really a false amphiarthrosis, since it is able to do light rotating and gliding movements. Consequently, the pelvis has a large importance in the inestable balance of the vertebral column, because any discordance is the first will affect the second.

This is the reason kaltenbornn we could consider it to be a functional unit. The sacroiliacus joints are the relief between the vertebral column, which is flexible on the part, and the pelvis stability on the bottom part. The articular sacrum surfaces and the ilium are described by the presence of elevations and depressions which difficult to stablish which articular surface is concave and which one is convex.

Kalterborn creates a model on a practical purpose where the sacrum is a bed pan placed in between the two iliacus. Therefore, he considers the sacrum to be the concave surface and the kaltenobrn iliacus to be the concave one. It is considered that the sacrum belongs to the lumbar vertebra kaltenbrn that the iliacus belong to the lower limbs. The conce;to wings present two principal mobilities: The iliacus wing does a rotation around kaltenobrn point: Therefore, there is an abbaisement of the anterosuperior iliacus spine and a rise of the posterosuperior iliacus spine.


A bilateral anteriority will provoke what is known as pelvic anterversion. Kaltenborn names the movement as a ventral rotation. The iliacus wing makes a posterior rotation around the femur head. Here it happens the opposite to the previous movement: In the bilateral addition of the movement, we will have a pelvic retroversion. Kaltenborn names it dorsal rotation. Around an obliquous axis, the iliacus makes an opening movement that involves: Around the tense obliquous axis of the sacroiliacus on the pubis, the iliacus does a closure movement where the following concepti are involved: Movements around the front axis.

Kaltenborn Evjenth Concept

They are produced basically on the superior pole of sacrum. When the sacrum base moves in ventrocaudal sense according to both iliacuss, the movement is known as nutation.

The opposite movement of the base in dorsocraneal sense, is known as counternutation. Movements around the sagittal axis. They are produced on the sacrum inferior pole and they are known as kaltebborn flexion to the right and to the left. During the jaltenborn side flexion, the sacrum right superior pole moves in caudal sense, and the left pole moves in craneal sense.

Movements around the vertical or longitudinal axis. They are basically produced on the sacrum superior pole and they are described as a left and right rotation.


When the right side moves in ventral sense, the left side moves in dorsal sense. At this point, the resistance of the floor against the body weight that transfers the neck of the femur and the head of the femur is recieved; a part of this resistance is cancelled by the opposite resistance to the symphysis pubis, after crossing the horizontal branch of pubis. Even though the sacroiliacus joint has minimum movement itself, this joint is extremely important in the body movements.

If we do an analysis during walk, we will have:.

At the lower limb at stand: The reaction of the floor, transmitted by the carrier member, lifts the corresponding hip-femoral joint. At the same time, this joint promotes a iliacus posteriorization. The weight of the rest of the body that falls onto the lumbosacral charnela promotes a sacral horizontalisation. This is where the sacrociatic ligaments enter as an opening of the coccygeus angle takes place. These ligaments must keep harmony during these glidings.

The opposite action takes place. The weight of the suspended limb has a tendency to move the opposite coxofemoral downwards. As a result, we have an iliacus anteriority and a sacral counterhorizontalisation. Under the effect of these up and down influences, a separation of the sacrum inferior extreme and of the tuberosity is registered.

The sacrum inferior extreme moves backwards and the tuberosity moves at the front. The opening of the coccygeus angle highlights the importance of the major and minor sacrociatic ligaments. All the conjunctive structure ligament, tendon, sheath, aponeurosis, etc.

Moreover the tension threshold, the sensitive recievers will send all the stretch and pain information. These informations, in a reflex way, will start a muscle defense response spasms. In this particular case, the pyramidal becomes tense when it sees that the first defense barrier sacrociatic ligaments are being defeated. This is an answer to the preservation need of the normal physiology of the joint itself.


We must bare in mind that this is done without involving other zones and even going against the organism economy and comfort laws. If we follow the analysis of the specific case, we will find that any sacroiliacus joint disfunction will produce a reflex spasm in the pyramidal muscle which, at the same time, due to its anatomic relationship with the sciatic nerve see picturewill also produce sciatalgias because of the compression neuropathy. In osteopathy, we mention many rules of body organization.

One of the basic ones is that the structure mobility loss joint must be replaced in other sectors jointsso that general mobility is maintained. Two terms are born from here, which could describe the sacroiliacus pathology: It would be repetitive to define each one, the name describes them already, and they are related if we bare in mind what was said in the beginning of this paragraf: A hypomobility, blocking or fixation of the ASI, may occur in any of the final positions of all the movements which have been described previously.

Therefore, there are sacrum and iliacus blockings. The ASI fixations are one of the major factors of restrictions in the lumbo-sacral joints and in the low lumbar disk degeneration.

They may also be responsible for a lumbosacral hypermobility, which is the cause of the disk protusion and, consequently, of sciatica. Pain arises on the hypermobile joint segment as a general rule. This is why it is unusual to find that the area where pain appears is the same area where the joint fixation to correct is found.

There are many tests to verify the ASI mobility. They differ between authors and complexity and each test can also be addapted by the physiotherapist himself.

This is the reason why a same test may demonstrate different situations. Let me introduce you some of them. We should highlight the importance of an anamnesis before these tests, it could even lighten our work.

There is no confepto information than the one collected from the person who feels the pain directly.

Even though it may be general, we must consider the initial test to evaluate the ASI. It has no specificity, but it gives us information on the structure itself. In the mean time he sits up, we exert an aduction with external rotation without removing neither the hands nor our sight from the initial position.

Finally, when the patient ends the sit up kaltenbogn, we will follow the lower limbs back to their original position. If you observe that one limb is higher than the other, you can suspect of a block in any of the ASI, without knowing exactly which one it is. This test is used to determinate the different anterior and posterior iliacus injuries and to stablish the difference between the total or partial deficit of iliacus bones movement over the sacrum.

Limitations on these movements or their exagerations will give us precious information. This test tries to bring the iliacus wing forward and, consequently, to evidence a back side possible block. This test tries to make a backwards movement on the iliacus wing, and therefore to show a possible front block.

Fisiologically, there is a shortening of 15 to 20 mm. In between each test, you must cancel the effect produced by a maximum flexion of the leg over the thigh and of the muscle over the trunk.