Dowland’s Lachrimae. John Dowland, the finest lutenist of his generation and one of England’s greatest composers, was born years ago in In he. CDH – Dowland: Lachrimae, or Seaven Teares. CDH Digital booklet (PDF) · John Dowland (). Lachrimae, or Seaven Teares. The Parley. By , the famed Elizabethan lutenist John Dowland was so closely associated with his most popular composition, the ‘Lachrimae’ pavan, that he was already.
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John Dowland probably had mixed motives for leaving England in He had just been turned down dowlwnd a post as a court lutenist, but he also had Catholic sympathies.
F R E T W O R K » Dowland’s Lachrimae
Dowland broke new ground with the publication of Lachrimae. At the time, dance music was usually written or printed in sets of doeland quarto parts, but Lachrimae is a folio volume and has the parts for each piece distributed around each side of a single opening, so that in theory they could be performed around a table from a single copy.
Dowland may have adopted this format, the one he used for his lute songs, because cowland included a lute part in tablature, which could not easily be accomodated in a small set of part-books. Lachrimae is certainly the first English collection of five-part dance music, manuscript or printed, to include a lute part, lachrimxe lutes often appear in contemporary pictures of violin bands accompanying dancing.
Lachrimae is normally thought of as belonging to the English consort repertory, but part of it, at least, was composed in Copenhagen. In the dedication Dowland informed the Queen that it was written partly in her homeland: Lachrimae is typical of the Anglo-German consort repertory in that great prominence is given to pavans.
English expatriates tended to use the pavan for their most serious thoughts, perhaps because most were string players or lutenists rather than organists or choirmasters—who wrote much of the consort repertory in England and used the fantasy as their main form. The collection is also typical of the Anglo-German repertory in that it is scored specifically for strings.
It is normally played today on viols, but professional string groups would have played sets dowlanv viols and violins as a matter of course, choosing the most appropriate according to circumstances.
It is unlikely that Dowland intended the two families to be combined in a mixed consort; the normal practice was to use complete lachrimqe of instruments as alternatives on a musical menu, rather than as ingredients in a single dish. The dosland collection can be played as it stands by the standard five-part violin consort of the time, consisting of a single violin, three violas and bass—the arrangement preserved well into the Baroque period by the French royal orchestra, the Vingt-quatre Violons.
Professional instrumentalists at the time would have made such transpositions as a matter of routine to suit the ranges and the character of different types of instrument, and a number of sixteenth-century dances survive in more than one key, presumably for this reason.
We cannot be sure why Lachrimae is divided into high- and low-pitched pieces, but an obvious possibility is that it reflects the different requirements of particular groups, perhaps in Copenhagen and London.
Lachrimae was drawn largely from music already composed by Dowland in other media. It was not uncommon for lutenists and keyboard players to produce consort versions of pieces they had already worked out for their own instruments.
Thus, of the twenty-one pieces, eleven exist as lute solos, sometimes under different titles: It is usually thought of as an original lute dowpand by the Landgrave, but the divisions are remarkably sophisticated and adventurous in style and were perhaps added by the dedicatee himself.
Some pieces in the collection were also well known as songs. Like most sixteenth-century publications of dance music, Lachrimae is organized by genre, the pavans followed by the galliards and the almans. They are unique dowlabd, too, in another sense.
Elizabethan composers frequently derived galliards from pavans, and it was common for pavans to allude to well-known examples of the genre. But only Dowland created a variation suite of seven pavans, linked by the opening four-note descending theme and by a subtle web of thematic and harmonic inter-relationships. The precise significance of the Latin titles is not entirely clear. Lachrimae seems to have had little influence lachrkmae the subsequent development of consort music in England.
The fashion for grave pavans and galliards soon passed, to be replaced by the light almans, corants and masque dances of the Jacobean age.
John Dowland’s “Lachrimae”
Nicht nur war seine Bewerbung als Hoflautenist gerade abgelehnt worden, er sympathisierte ebenfalls mit dem Katholizismus. Jahrhundert in mehr als einer Tonart dosland geblieben.
Wie so viele Tanzmusiken des Jahrhunderts ist Lachrimae nach Genre angeordnet, d. Auch in einem anderen Sinn sind diese Pavanen einzigartige Werke: Doch nur Dowland komponierte eine Variations-Suite von sieben Pavanen, die durch ein einleitendes Thema von vier absteigenden Noten und ein feines Gewebe von thematischen und harmonischen Beziehungen verbunden sind.
Die genaue Bedeutung der lateinischen Titel ist nicht ganz klar. Doch die Erinnerung an Dowland wurde im kontinentalen Europa wachgehalten. Update Required To play the media you will need to either update your browser to a recent version or update your Flash plugin. Don’t show me this message again. Originally issued on CDA The first was in the early fifteenth century when the motets, Mass movements and chansons of John Dunstable and his contemporaries became the models for subsequent developments in Flanders and Burgundy.
The second was two centuries later, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, when a dowlans of English composers and instrumentalists found work at northern European courts. They went abroad for three dwland reasons.
Some, such as William Brade and Thomas Simpson, were probably attracted by the lucrative opportunities available in the prosperous small courts and city states of northern Europe. Henceforth, actors were forbidden to work in England unless they were under the patronage of the Queen or a prominent courtier. Zum ersten geschah dies Anfang des