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The Pygmalion effector Rosenthal effectis the phenomenon whereby others’ expectations of a target person affect the target person’s performance. A corollary of the Pygmalion effect is the golem effectin which low edecto lead to a decrease in performance;  both effects are forms of self-fulfilling prophecy. By the Pygmalion effect, people internalize their positive labels, and those with positive labels succeed accordingly.
The idea behind the Pygmalion effect is that increasing the leader’s expectation of the follower’s performance will result in better follower performance.
Within sociologythe effect is often cited with regard to education and social class. The concept of stereotype threat could be considered to be the inverse of the Pygmalion effect, as it denotes a negative form of self-fulfilling prophecy. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson ‘s study showed that, if teachers were led to expect enhanced performance from children, then the children’s performance was enhanced. This study supported the hypothesis that reality can be positively or negatively influenced by the expectations of others, called the observer-expectancy effect.
Rosenthal argued that biased expectancies could affect reality and create self-fulfilling prophecies.
All students in a single California elementary school were given a disguised IQ test at the beginning of the study. These scores were not disclosed to teachers.
The bloomers’ names were made known to the teachers. At the end of the study, all students were again tested with the same IQ-test used at the beginning of the study. Sfecto six grades in both experimental and ;igmaleon groups showed a mean gain in IQ from before the test to after the test.
However, First and Second Graders showed statistically significant gains favoring the experimental group of “intellectual bloomers”. This led to the conclusion that teacher expectations, particularly for the youngest children, can influence student achievement.
Rosenthal believed that even attitude or mood could positively affect the students pigmalepn the teacher was made aware of the “bloomers”. The teacher may pay closer attention to and even treat the child differently in times of difficulty.
;igmaleon predicted that elementary school teachers may subconsciously behave in ways that facilitate pigmalson encourage the students’ success. When finished, Rosenthal theorized that future studies could be implemented to find teachers who would encourage their students naturally without changing their teaching methods.
The prior research that motivated this study was done in by psychologists regarding feecto case of Clever Hansa horse that gained notoriety because it was supposed to be able to read, spell, and solve math problems by using its hoof to answer. Many skeptics suggested that questioners and observers were unintentionally signaling Clever Hans. For instance, whenever Clever Hans was asked a question the observers’ demeanor usually elicited a certain behavior from the subject that in turn confirmed their expectations.
For example, Clever Hans would be given a math problem to solve, and the audience would get very tense the closer he tapped his foot to the right number, thus giving Hans the clue he needed to tap the correct number of times.
Teachers are also affected by the children in the classroom. Teachers efecro what is projected into them by their students.
An experiment done by Jenkins and Deno submitted teachers to a classroom of children who had either been told to be attentive, or unattentive, to the teachers’ lecture. They found that teachers who were in the attentive condition would rate their teaching skills as higher. Soon after Pygmalion’ s publication, Robert L. Thorndikean educational psychologistcriticized the study and demonstrated that the instrument used to assess the children’s IQ scores was seriously flawed.
In the end, Thorndike wrote the Pygmalion study’s findings were worthless. He summarized his evaluation of the instrument this way: When the clock strikes 14, we throw away the clock.
A major limitation has also been the lack of replication. Leader expectations of the employee may alter leader behavior. This behavior that is expressed toward an employee can affect the behaviors of the employee in favor of the leader’s expectations. In turn, the employee participates in more learning behavior.
Leaders will show more leader behaviors such as leader-member exchange trust, respect, obligation, etc. These factors were brought about by Rosenthal’s model of the Pygmalion effect. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Handbook of Psychology ffecto Pygmalion in the classroom: Influence of student behavior on teacher’s self-evaluation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Pygmalion in the classroom by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson.
Pygmalion effect – Wikipedia
pugmaleon American Educational Research Journal, 5 4 Magnitude of teacher expectancy effects on pupil IQ as a function of the credibility of expectancy induction: A synthesis of findings from 18 experiments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76 1 The role of leader behaviors”. Journal of Management35 5— Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw.