EORTC Quality of Life Group website. brought new side effects, therefore different impacts on quality of life are not sufficiently covered by EORTC QLQ BR- To be used in conjunction with the EORTC QLQ-C30 for assessing the quality of life of breast cancer patients participating in international clinical trials. Download Table | Breast cancer-specific quality of life (EORTC QLQ-BR23) scores between CAM users and non-CAM users a. from publication: Quality of Life in.
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A quantitative and cross-descriptive sectional study. All of subjects were recruited in a Singapore tertiary cancer center. The study showed that Singaporean women with breast cancer had enjoyed high levels of HRQOL during their first 4 years of survivorship but they had significant concern over the financial impact of breast cancer. One of the key findings was younger women had experienced more physical and psychosocial concerns than older women.
Breast cancer is a most common cancer being diagnosed worldwide. It accounts for about 1. There were about Singaporean women diagnosed with breast cancer on an annual basis, in which 1 in every 17 women might contract the illness. Many studies reported that women often experienced uncertainty, stress, anxiety and depression as well as a decline in their physical and social functioning following breast cancer diagnosis and treatments. QOL is defined as the assessment of at least three domains of well-being which are physical, emotional and social.
While many studies evaluated the HRQOL of women with breast cancer following cancer diagnosis and treatments or long-term survivals of 5 to 10 years,[ 9101112 ] few studied the impact of breast cancer diagnosis and interventions of acute survivorship among women between their first and fourth years of post-cancer interventions to assess their QOL which might change over time.
Some studies have also reported that women who had completed their breast cancer treatments several months later have difficulties coping and adapting to being a breast cancer survivor.
This is an important acute survival to long-term survival transitional period that may affect women’s QOL outcomes. Hence, there was a significant value to study the QOL of Singaporean women with breast cancer after their diagnosis and treatments in assessing their physical and psychosocial well-being.
This could help to identify their specific physical and psychosocial concerns so as to develop appropriate strategies in meeting their needs.
The former is a general QOL tool while the latter is specific for breast cancer. Singapore is a multi-cultural Asian country that comprise of many ethnic groups that include the population of Chinese, Malay, Indian and Eurasians.
Although the EORTC instruments have been validated in other countries, it would be necessary to evaluate the appropriateness of using these questionnaires in the Singapore local patient population as the cultural and social context may be very different from the socio-cultural setting of another country.
The specific objectives of this study are to:. This was a quantitative and cross-sectional descriptive study. It was conducted at a premier National Cancer Centre in Singapore. A total of breast cancer patients in their first 4 years of post-interventions were recruited in the study. A minimum sample size of would be required to achieve an effect size of 0. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit participants for this study. Women more than 21 years old with breast cancer stage 0 to 3A and in the first 4 years of post-interventions were recruited.
Post-interventions included breast surgery of wide excision or mastectomy with or without chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. They must be residing in Singapore as citizens or permanent residents and able to understand any of the four major languages which are English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil.
The exclusion criteria for this study included women who were diagnosed with breast cancer of lobular carcinoma in situmetastatic disease, disease recurrence within 1 to 4 years post-treatments and had cognitively impaired or of unsound mind. The instruments used in this study included three sets of questionnaire, available in the languages of English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil.
The variables included age, education and income levels of the participants as well as their medical variables of breast cancer stage, year s of post-interventions, types of surgery and existing co-morbidities. The second and third sets of questionnaires were used to assess the QOL of women in their first 4 years of breast cancer survivorship.
Permission to use both sets of questionnaires prior to the study has been sought and approved. It assesses domains of mobility, self care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, anxiety or depression and provides a quantitative measurement of health outcome. The EORTC QLQ-BR23 is a breast-specific module that comprises of 23 questions to assess body image, sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, future perspective, systemic therapy side effects, breast symptoms, arm symptoms and upset by hair loss.
A high or healthy level of functioning is represented by a high functional score. More severe symptoms or problems are represented by high symptom scores or items. This study was conducted after ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board of the study centre. The team had attained approval and support from the various heads of department of physicians in the disciplines of breast surgical oncology, medical oncology and radiation oncology to refer potential participants for the study.
The participants were recruited when they came for follow-up consultations at the qlq-b23 clinics. The case records of all women with a diagnosis of breast cancer were screened for eligibility on the day before they turned up for their appointments with their primary physicians. Prior to the study at the outpatient oncology clinics, the research team sought permission and obtained erotc from the physicians to recruit potential participants suitable for the study.
The researchers then approached the eligible participants to explain the study and obtain their written consent. The participants were given the choice of a face-to-face interview with the researchers or to answer the questionnaires by themselves. The questionnaires took qla-br23 20 minutes to complete. All categorical data were presented in frequency and percentage and continuous data qql-br23 presented in mean, median and standard deviation.
A statistical significant level was set at 0. Reliability of the questionnaires was examined using Cronbach’s alpha test.
EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-BR23)
A Eorrc alpha eorc 0. A total of patients with breast carcinoma were invited to participate in the study. Fourteen patients declined to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were Chinese Not applicable participant did not answer the questionnaires on sexual enjoyment. Most of the breast carcinoma participants were 4 years Most of the participants had stage IIA A total of 98 participants had mastectomy and 72 participants had wide excision surgery.
Breast Cancer (update of QLQ-BR23) | EORTC – Quality of Life : EORTC – Quality of Life
This indicated a moderately strong correlation between the two measures. The findings of this study provided support for the reliability of both QOL measures. There was acceptable good Cronbach’s alpha score of 0. The researchers had examined the entire sample and mean scores for QOL reported by women in their first 4 years of breast cancer survivorship. Overall, Singaporean women in this study population fortc generally high QOL outcomes and good physical, role, emotional, cognitive, social functioning and symptoms well-being.
The high levels of QOL scores among Singaporean women might be because they had completed active breast cancer treatments and had integrated well to their social environments. This result was consistent with a study that reported women with breast cancer in their first 2 to 5 years of survivorship had achieved high QOL outcomes.
Another ql-br23 also reported improvements in symptoms such as pain and fatigue 1 year after breast cancer interventions. Interestingly, another main important finding was Singaporean women who were in their third year of breast cancer survivorship appeared to have more financial concerns than those women in the first and second year. Meanwhile, women who were in their second year of post-treatments were more worried about financial issues than those women in their first year of breast cancer survivorship.
One of the possible explanations is that breast cancer is a costly disease. It influences the economic well-being of the women and their family members. A systematic review expounded that wortc increasing years, breast cancer survivors and family members eirtc experience financial burdens associated with the illness.
They may engage in more social activities as a form of distraction therapy from breast cancer which can lead to an increase in expenditure. The findings of the study showed that women who were in the younger age group of 30 to 39 years old experienced more nausea and vomiting worries than the older age group.
They also had more concerns in the aspects of body image and future health function than women who were 40 years old and above. Several other studies supported the study findings that women in the younger age group had a lower QOL in terms of body image and future health function as compared to the older women.
EORTC QLQ-BR23 – EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer Module
They are also eeortc about the possibility of cancer recurrence that may affect their health, families, work and career. The other possible explanation that women of the younger age group had reported more worry over the symptoms of nausea and vomiting was because chemotherapy regime ordered for the younger women were more aggressive than the older women.
The study also showed that women who were highly educated and graduated from post-secondary and university had experienced symptoms of fatigue and insomnia more than those women who were less educated at the primary and below level. The possible explanation for these results is women with better education are more likely to obtain information about breast cancer treatments and outcomes for the future.
Whereas women who have lower educational background may not source for more information eotc their illness and may be less affected physically and emotionally. The study showed that women with knee osteoarthritis OA and diabetes mellitus DM had reported a decrease in their physical and role functioning QOL variables. They were also affected by the symptom of pain.
This is consistent with the study conducted by Schlenk et al. The findings of the study also revealed that symptoms such as fatigue, appetite loss and diarrhea were significant in both chronic diseases of OA and DM. Whereas symptoms of dyspnea and insomnia were only prominent in the subjects with knee OA.
Kartz and McHorney also reported similar result that pain fortc OA is the common cause for insomnia. This is also addressed by Sun et al. The study revealed that women with stage 0 and stage I of breast cancer as compared to qlq-b2r3 with stage 2A and stage 3A had significantly higher levels of emotional distress of anxiety, depression and irritability.
This finding was consistent qlq-nr23 several other studies that found that women with early breast cancer attain psychological disturbance of anxiety and depression that affect their QOL. This study found that women who had undergone breast-conserving surgery experienced more systemic therapy side effects such as dryness of mouth and taste alterations of food and drink as compared to women who had mastectomy.
It also discovered that women with wide excision were more affected with hair loss resulted from chemotherapy than women qlq-br2 mastectomy. A possible explanation for this was that women who had selected mastectomy had stronger convictions regarding the benefits of mastectomy that it totally eradicated the cancer and might be less affected with body image disturbances such as temporary hair loss resulted from chemotherapy. They were more bothered with altered body image and in turn afraid of hair loss that could affect their self-esteem.
Thus, it appears that women who are treated with breast conserving surgery eortd the concerns of systemic side effects that can impact on their QOL. This was a single-tertiary cancer center-based study and thus the results could not be generalized for the population of women with breast cancer in Singapore.
Another limitation was that this was a cross-sectional study that measured the HRQOL of women with breast cancer in their first 4 years of survivorship. The third limitation was that the number of subjects with knee OA was rather eorrc which may not be representative for HRQOL assessment. There are several implications for healthcare professionals who are caring for the women with breast cancer.
These instruments can be promising measures to examine the levels of HRQOL among Singaporean women with breast cancer in future studies in improving their health outcomes.
The study reflected that the younger women in Singapore had experienced more physical symptoms distress such as nausea and vomiting as well as psychosocial concerns that included sexual dysfunction and fear of cancer recurrence which affected their HRQOL. Women who had selected breast-conserving surgery also showed that they had concerns over systemic therapy side effects and the loss of hair.
Moreover, the study had highlighted that breast cancer could cause significant financial impact in women with breast cancer in Singapore. Healthcare providers can help to explore the financial needs of the women.