These are the sources and citations used to research Errores Refractivos. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Sunday. Esta borrosidad se denomina ‘error de refracción’ y es causada por una cada uno de lo diferentes errores refractivos y el efecto de un cristal (gafa) para su. “Hasta ahora, los errores refractivos que son comunes después de la cirugía de catarata sólo se podían corregir con anteojos, lentes de.

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To evaluate the pattern of refractive errors among school children in Jhapa, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate refractive status of school children in three government schools and a private school. A complete eye examination was carried out in all children including refrzctivos lamp examination, fundus examination, retinoscopy and subjective refraction.

Chi-square test was performed to analyze incidence of refractive error in gender; age groups; type of schools. Out of students, refractive error was present in 8. The myopia of 2—6 diopters was most common in Myopia was found to increase as age advanced. Hyperopia and astigmatism initially increased but later decreased with age.

Refractive error was a significant problem in schoolchildren in Jhapa.

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Myopia was the most common refractive problem. Private schoolchildren had significantly higher refractive errors.

An estimated million people over 5 years of age are visually impaired as a result of uncorrected refractive errors, of which 8 million are blind. Poor vision rrrores an inability to read material on the chalkboard due to refractive error can profoundly affect a child’s participation and learning in the classroom.

Errores Refractivos – Medicine bibliographies – Cite This For Me

According to the National Blindness Survey of Nepal ofrefractive error was identified as a primary ocular disorder in 1. The purpose of this study was to gather information on the refractive status of students refraxtivos that an effective approach can be planned to tackle errors burden of readily correctable refraction problems in school children.

Children were also provided with glasses and medicines when found necessary. When encountered with diseases that could not be managed at schools, they are brought to Mechi Eye Hospital for appropriate management. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in students in three government schools of Jhapa: Distribution of students is given in Table 1.

All the children attending the schools visited were included in the study. Very few children, who were absent at the time of the school visit, were left out. There were around 18 private schools available at http: Accessed on December 26, and government schools in Jhapa. Among these school children, Male female ratio is 1. Jhapa borders Ilam district in the north, Morang district in the west, the Indian state of Bihar in the south and east, and the Indian state of West Bengal in the east.


Jhapa is the home to about 99 ethnic people.

Majority includes Bahun Almost all the villages and towns are linked by roads. Jhapa has a literacy rate of All the schools were sent written information detailing the purpose of the eye examination, and permission was sought. Errors the parents were advised to be present on the day of examination. They were advised erroree visit us in the hospital for further clarification. The team carrying out the school screening consisted of an ophthalmologist, two optometrists, an ophthalmic assistant and a driver.

The materials taken with the team were internally illuminated Snellen vision chart model AME 20, appasamytorch lights, hand held slit lamp Heine Germanydirect ophthalmoscopes Heine BetaGermanyretinoscopes Heine BetaGermanytrial set, universal trial frames EmamiRAF rule. The diagnostic criteria used for refractive error was 0.

Presenting vision is defined by the visual acuity in the better eye unaided or using currently available refractive correction in spectacle wearers. Best-corrected vision was the visual acuity in the better eye achieved by subjects tested with refraction. All data were entered in the statistical package for social studies version Chi-square test was performed to analyze differences in the refractive error between male and female, among different age group, and between government schools and the private school.

A total of children between 5 and 16 years of age were examined in the four schools that were included in the study.

Refractive error among school children in Jhapa, Nepal

Out of 35 students 1. Prevalence of refractive error is shown in Table 3. A total of students 8. Refractive error was prevalent in 9. Prevalence of refractive error which was 6. Prevalence of refractive error refractovos private school was Age distribution of refractive error was not significantly different between private and government schools. The magnitude of refractive error is given in Table 4. Myopia was the most common refractive error in Similarly astigmatism less than 1. Distribution of magnitude of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was insignificantly different between male and female.

Emmetropia Figure 1 was observed in Mean score for hypermetropia was increased to 1. During the time erores screening, other abnormalities were also seen.

They were convergence insufficiency in 1. These students were referred to Mechi Eye Care centre for further evaluation and management. Hence, a total ocular morbidity including refractive error was seen in Refractive error is one of the avoidable causes of blindness and low vision. It can restrict progress in education, limit career opportunity and restrict access to information. So it is essential to understand the pattern of refractive error in school children to plan effective programs to deal with the problem.

The prevalence of refractive error among school children in this study was 8. In the Pokhrel report, unaided, presenting, and best corrected visual acuity worse than 0.

In the same report, the prevalence of refractive error was reported 4. The prevalence of refractive error was found higher in our study compared to Pokhrel report 5 although both studies were conducted in Jhapa district.


Our study was conducted in school children while the Pokhrel report was population based. Cycloplegic refraction was not conducted in all cases in our study as compared to Pokhrel report.

Description of prevalence of refractive error was also refrxctivos in our study from Pokhrel report. Refractivo contrast to that, we assigned myopia as 0.

However, our finding was comparable to other school based reports, e. Nepal 7 found 8. Jialiang 4 in These findings suggest that prevalence of refractive error is higher in school children and there is a variation in refractive error in different geographical regions.

The prevalence of vision impairment was present in 5 students 0. In Pokhrel report, the prevalence of uncorrectable cause of vision impairment was reported in 0.

In Sapkota12 the prevalence of vision impairment was reported in 0. Both studies reported other causes of visual impairment like cataract, retinal disorder, and corneal opacity and unexplained, apart from refractive error. In our study, pseudophakia and aphakia refractigos noted in 0. However, refraction in those cases could improve vision.

But, our study was limited to only few schools and sample coverage was poor. Owing to this fact we would have missed some other important clinical conditions which could have been prevalent in other schools. Prevalence of refractive error was found invariably increased with increasing age Table 3.

Riesgos y complicaciones de la cirugía LASIK –

Myopia was the most common refractive error Myopia range D was most common Table 4 in Astigmatism less than 1. This finding was in an agreement with studies by Nepal errotes, 7 Pokhrel13 Sapkota and Niroula But, the ratio of number of hypermetropic 1 and astigmatic 1.

This finding suggests that males were more at risk of developing myopia than females. Amblyopia was present in 2. If this number of amblyopia is considered out errorez children having refractive error, it would be an intense problem Some sort of preschool screening Programme should be initiated to reduce its significance. Refractive error in private school children was observed in Comparable findings were reported by Niroula 8 in 9. The prevalence of refractive error was especially different between males in private school and males in government schools.

Private school students came from more privileged families compared to government school students.

Private school students were usually exposed to opportunities like computer education, competitive education and extra refgactivos courses.

These could be some of the possible reasons which have to be explored. Ocular morbidity in our study Mechi eye hospital is the only eye hospital that has been providing comprehensive eye care and screening services in the Jhapa district of Nepal since