ant h ro p o 1 o gi cal. Sens et puissance: Les dynamiques sociales. GEORGES A . BALANDIER BibliotGque de sociologie contemporaine, Paris: Presses Uni-. Sens et puissance: Les dynamiques sociales, Édition 4 – Ebook written by Georges Balandier. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android. Seller Inventory # A More information about this seller | Contact this seller 2. Sens et puissance: Les dynamiques sociales: Georges Balandier.
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Georges Balandier 21 December — 5 October was a French sociologistanthropologist and ethnologist noted for his research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Balandier was born in Aillevillers-et-Lyaumont. He held for many years the Editorship of Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie previously held by his mentor Georges Gurvitch and edited the series Sociologie d’Aujourd’hui at Presses Universitaires de France.
He died on 5 October at the age of Colonialism, power and culture in the work of Georges Balandier: Georges Balandier in March Georges Balandier 21 December — 5 October was a French sociologist, anthropologist and ethnologist noted for his research in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Claude Meillassoux ; French: In the s he criticised Marshall Sahlins’s use of the notion of “domestic mode of production”. Meillassoux was throughout his life a politically committed critic of social injustice. His son Quentin is an academic philosopher. Books Femmes, greniers et capitauxMaspero; transl.
Capitalism and the Domestic Community Anthropologie de l’esclavage: A Marxist Approach to Economic Anthropology.
In anthropology, an age set is a social category or corporate social group, consisting of people of similar age, who have a common identity, maintain close ties over a prolonged period, and together pass through a series of age-related statuses. This is in contrast to an age grade, through which people pass individually over time. While a year group or class in a school could be regarded as a simple example of an age set e. The phenomenon is most prevalent in East Africa, central Brazil and parts of New Guinea, where in balaandier societies the importance of social groupings based on age eclipses that of social groupings based on kinship and descent.
Age sets in these societies are formed by the periodic grouping together of young people—usually men—into a corporate unit with a name and a collective identity.
As its members age the set stays together and increases in seniority geoges older sets die off and new ones are formed Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the balqndier of the structure puossance societies. History of political anthropology Origins Political anthropology has its roots in the 19th century.
At that time, thinkers such as Lewis H. Morgan and Sir Henry Maine tried to trace the evolution of human society from ‘primitive’ or ‘savage’ societies to more ‘advanced’ ones. These early approaches were ethnocentric, speculative, and often racist. Nevertheless, they laid the basis for political anthropology by undertaking a modern study inspired by modern science, and in particular Darwin.
In a move that would be influential for future anthropology, they focused on kinship as the key to understanding political organization, and emphasized the role of the ‘gens’ or lineage as an object of study. They rejected the speculative hist Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of pukssance leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage.
Patriarchy is associated with a set of ideas, a patriarchal ideology that acts to explain and justify this dominance and attributes it to inherent natural differences between men and women. Sociologists tend to see patriarchy as a social product and geirges as an outcome of innate differences between puisaance sexes and they focus attention on the way that gender roles in a society affect power differentials between men and women. Georges, a French name with the puissamce origin as the English name George, may refer to: A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society geoorges chiefdom.
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Description Tribal societies with social stratification under a single or dual leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age.
In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government. The term is usually distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief geographically defined or puissancs chief an essentially genealogical notion.
The descriptive “tribal” requires an ethno-cultural identity racial, linguistic, re Kapu balandisr the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics and religion. An offense that was kapu was often a capital offense, but also often denoted a threat to spiritual power, or theft of mana. Kapus were strictly enforced. The concept is related to taboo and the tapu or tabu found in other Polynesian cultures.
The Hawaiian word kapu is usually yeorges to English as “forbidden”, though it also carries the meanings of “keep out”, bakandier trespassing”, “sacred”, “consecrated”, or “holy”.
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The opposite of kapu is noa, meaning “common” or “free”. Kapuhili Puisdance Kapuhili were restrictions placed upon ggeorges with chiefs kingsbut these also apply to all people of known spiritual power. It was kapu when entering a chief’s personal area to come in con A big man is a highly influential individual in a tribe, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia.
Such a person may not have formal tribal or other authority through for instance material possessions, or inheritance of rightsbut can maintain recognition through skilled persuasion and wisdom. The big man has a large group of followers, both from his clan and from other clans.
He provides his followers with protection and economic assistance, in return receiving support which he uses to increase his status. Big man “system” The American anthropologist Puizsance Sahlins has studied the big man phenomenon. Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia”, Sahlins uses analytically constructed ideal-types of hierarchy and equality to compare a larger-scale Polynesian-type hierarchical society of chiefs and sub-chiefs with a Melanesian-type big-man system.
He is balndier for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He is also known for doing more than gorges other author to secure the place of the word “despotism” in the political lexicon.
In sociology and anthropology, an age grade or age class is a form of social organization based on age, within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives. This is in contrast to an age set, to which individuals remain permanently attached as the set itself becomes progressively more senior. The number of age sejs, the determining ages and the terminology vary significantly between traditions.
Even within a single society, a person may belong to several overlapping grades in different spheres of life, e. In tribal societies entry into an age grade – generally gender-separated – is often marked by an initiation rite, which may be the crowning of a long and complex preparation, sometimes in retreat.
After a period of some years, during which they often perform certain common activities, alone or under senior guidance, members may be initiated ei Voters waiting in line to vote in South Sudan to decide whether to form a new state or remain with Sudan State formation is the process of the development of a centralized government structure in a situation where one did not exist prior to its development. State formation has been a study of many disciplines of the social sciences for a number of years, so much so that Jonathan Haas writes that “One of the favorite pastimes of social scientists over the course of the past century has been to theorize about the evolution of the world’s great civilizations.
Academic debate about various theories is a prominent feature in fields like Anthropology, Sociology, Economics and Political Science. A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or ‘houses’. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. Within general theories of cultural evolution, chiefdoms are characterized by permanent and institutionalized forms of political leadership the chiefcentralized decision-making, economic interdependence, and social hierarchy.
Chiefdoms are described as intermediate between tribes and states in the progressive scheme of sociopolitical development formulated by Elman Service: Ceremonial cross of John Frum cargo cult, Tanna island, New Hebrides now VanuatuA cargo cult is a belief system among members of a relatively undeveloped society in which adherents practice superstitious rituals hoping to bring modern goods supplied by a more technologically advanced society.
These cults, millenarian in nature, were first described in Melanesia in the wake of contact with advanced Western cultures. The name derives from the belief which began among Melanesians in the late 19th and early 20th century that various ritualistic acts such as the building of an airplane runway will result in the appearance of material wealth, particularly highly desirable Western goods i. Under conditions of social stress, such a movement may form under the leadership of a charismatic figure.
This leader may have a “vision” or “myth-dream” of the future, often linked to an ancestral efficacy “mana” th An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another except for ethnic groups emphasizing homogeneity or racial purity as a key membership criterion.
Ethnicity is often used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. A band society, or horde in generally older usage, is the simplest form of human society.
A band generally consists of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan. The general consensus of modern anthropology sees the average number of members of a social band at the simplest level of foraging societies as ranging from 30 to 50 people.
The three were respectively ‘horde,’ ‘band’, and ‘tribe’. Howitt and Lorimer Fison in the mids to describe a geographically or locally defined division within a larger tribal aggregation, the latter being defined in terms of social divisions categorized in terms of descent.
Their idea was then developed by A. Achieved status is a concept developed by the anthropologist Ralph Linton denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It is the opposite of ascribed status.
It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts.
Examples of achieved status are being an Olympic athlete, being a criminal, or being a college professor. Status is important sociologically because it comes with a set of rights, obligations, behaviors, and duties that people occupying a certain position are expected or encouraged to perform.
These expectations are referred to as roles. For instance, the role of a “professor” includes teaching students, answering their questions, being impartial, appropriately. This is usually associated with “closed” societies. Achieved status is distinguished Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned.
The practice of assigning such statuses to individuals exists cross-culturally within all societies and is based on sns, race, family origins, and ethnic backgrounds. In contrast, an achieved status is a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects both personal ability and merit. An individual’s occupation tends to fall under the category of an achieved status; for example, a teacher or a firefighter.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can geotges objectively verified within a particular social setting.
A claim can be carried out in defense of “what has always been done and accepted by law.