por el dolor físico y emocional que pueden causar estas enfermedades. Este folleto le dará los hechos básicos acerca de su enfermedad muscular metabólica . in the producido-principalmente en el hígado liverandskeletal muscles. y los glicogénica del hígado glucogenolisis glycogenolysis (gli ́ ́kuo-jue-nol.

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The goal of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and the citric acid cycle is to conserve energy as ATP from the catabolism of carbohydrates. If the cells have sufficient supplies of ATP, then these pathways and cycles are inhibited.

Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogen is synthesized depending on the demand for glucose and ATP energy. If both are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in liver and muscle cells. In the synthesis of glycogen, one ATP is required per glucose incorporated into the polymeric branched structure of glycogen. Glucosephosphate is synthesized directly from glucose or as the end product of gluconeogenesis.

In glycogenolysis, glycogen stored in the liver and muscles, is converted first to glucose phosphate and then into glucogenllisis.

Two hormones which control glycogenolysis are a peptide, glucagon from the pancreas lgucogenolisis epinephrine from the adrenal glands. Glucagon is released from the pancreas in response to low blood glucose and epinephrine is released in response to a threat or stress.

GLUCOGENOLISIS by Romina Rios on Prezi

Both hormones act upon enzymes to stimulate glycogen phosphorylase to begin glycogenolysis and inhibit glycogen synthetase to stop glycogenesis. Glycogen is a highly branched polymeric structure containing glucose as the basic monomer. First individual glucose molecules are gglucogenolisis from the chain, followed by the addition of a phosphate group at C In the next step the phosphate is moved to the C-6 position to give glucose 6-phosphate, a cross road compound.


Glucosephosphate is the first step of the glycolysis pathway if glycogen is the carbohydrate source and further energy is needed.


If energy is not immediately needed, the glucosephosphate is converted to glucose for distribution in the blood to various cells such as brain cells. Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.

The starting point of gluconeogenesis is pyruvic acid, although oxaloacetic acid and dihydroxyacetone phosphate also provide entry points. Lactic acid, some amino acids from protein and glycerol from fat can be converted into glucose. Gluconeogenesis is similar but not the exact reverse of glycolysis, some of the steps are the identical in reverse direction and three of them are new ones.

Principles of Biochemistry/Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenesis

Without going into detail, the general gluconeogenesis sequence glucogenoliwis given in the graphic on the left. Notice that oxaloacetic acid is synthesized from pyruvic acid in the first step.

Oxaloacetic acid is also the first compound to react with acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle. If the concentration of acetyl CoA is low and concentration of ATP is high then gluconeogenesis proceeds.

Also notice that ATP is required for a biosynthesis sequence of gluconeogenesis. Muxcular occurs mainly in the liver with a small amount also occurring in the cortex of the kidney.

Very little gluconeogenesis occurs in the brain, skeletal muscles, heart muscles or other body tissue. In fact, these organs have a high demand for glucose. Therefore, gluconeogenesis is constantly occurring in the liver to maintain the glucose level in the blood to meet these demands.


Link to Rodney Boyer – Gluconeogenesis. How many pyruvic acid molecules are required to make glucose? Answer Pyruvic acid has 3 carbons, glucose gljcogenolisis 6 carbons, therefore 2 pyruvic acid molecules are needed.

Pyruvic Acid – Crossroads.

Click for larger image. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis Biosynthesis of Glycogen: Link to Rodney Boyer – Gluconeogenesis – Quiz: Summary of Metabolic Processes. Starting Compound and End Product. Energy Required or Given off.

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Answer s-glycogen e-glucose- 6-phosphate. Answer s-glucose- 6-phosphate e-glycogen. Answer s-glucose- 6-phosphate e- pyruvic acid. Answer s-pyruvic acid e-glucose- 6-phosphate. If you have glucosephosphate, name three things you can do with it. Answer 1 Convert to glucose and send out to blood. If mmuscular have just eaten, have plenty of glucose in the blood, and ATP is plentiful, what happens?

Answer The glucogenolisiss is converted to glycogen in the liver and muscles by glycogenesis. If ATP is sufficient and there are excess amino acids, what happens? Answer This is when gluconeogenesis is used in the liver to make glucose for the blood and brain.