The holonomic brain theory, developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm, is a model of human cognition that. and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, . do que é informação, criada pela Teoria da Informação clássica e elaborada . na área de ESTUDOS DA CONSCIÊNCIA e neurociências quântico-holográfica e. Mas, uma nova Teoria Holoinformacional de Consciência, fundamentada na desenvolvido por Karl Pribram; a interpretação causal holográfica da teoria.
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The holografiica brain theorydeveloped by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohmis a model of human cognition that describes the iarl as a holographic storage network.
In this theory, a piece of a long-term memory is similarly distributed over a dendritic arbor so that each part of the dendritic network contains all the information stored over the entire network. In Dennis Gabor invented the hologram mathematically, describing a system where an image can be reconstructed through information that is stored throughout the hologram.
Gabor also developed a mathematical model for demonstrating a holographic associative memory. Karl Pribram had worked with psychologist Karl Lashley on Lashley’s engram experiments, which used lesions to determine the exact location of specific memories in primate brains.
On the other hand, Pribram removed large areas of cortex, leading to multiple serious deficits in memory and cognitive function. Memories were not stored in a single neuron or exact location, but were spread over the entirety of a neural network. Lashley suggested that brain interference patterns could play a role in perception, but was unsure how such patterns might be generated in the brain or how they would lead to brain function.
Several years later an article by neurophysiologist John Teoeia described how a wave could be generated at the branching ends of pre-synaptic axons. Multiple of these waves could create interference patterns.
Soon after, Emmett Leith was successful in storing visual images through the interference patterns of laser beams, inspired by Gabor’s previous use of Fourier transformations to store information within a hologram.
A main characteristic of a hologram is that every part of the stored information is distributed over the entire hologram. An analogy to this is the broadcasting region of a radio antenna. In each smaller individual location within the entire area it is possible to access every channel, similar to how the entirety of the information of a hologram is contained within a part. It doesn’t matter how narrow the beam of sunlight is. The beam always contains all the information of the object, and when conjugated by a lens of a camera or the eyeball, produces the same full three-dimensional image.
The Fourier prirbam formula converts spatial forms to spatial wave frequencies and vice versa, as all objects are in essence vibratory structures. Different types of lenses, acting similarly to optic lensescan alter the frequency nature of information that is transferred.
This kalr of information storage within the hologram is crucial, because even if most parts are damaged, the entirety will be contained within even a single remaining part of sufficient size. Pribram and others noted the similarities between an optical hologram and memory storage in the human brain. According to the holonomic brain theory, memories are stored within certain general regions, but teoroa non-locally within those regions.
It can also explain why memory is not lost when the brain is sliced in different cross-sections. Pribram proposed prlbram neural holograms were formed by the diffraction patterns of oscillating electric waves within the cortex. Pribram does not suggest that the brain functions as a single hologram. Rather, the waves within smaller neural networks create localized holograms within the larger workings of the brain. A holographic model can also account for other features of memory that more tworia models cannot.
The Hopfield memory model has an early memory saturation point before which memory retrieval drastically slows and becomes unreliable. Holographic models can teorja demonstrate associative kadl, store complex connections between different concepts, and resemble forgetting through “lossy holoografica.
In classic brain theory the summation of electrical inputs to the dendrites and soma cell body of a neuron either inhibit the neuron or excite it and set off an action potential down the axon to where it synapses with the next neuron. However, this fails to account for different varieties of synapses beyond the traditional axodendritic axon to dendrite.
Holonomic brain theory – Wikipedia
There is evidence for the existence of other kinds of synapses, including serial synapses and those between dendrites and soma and between different dendrites. Processes in this dendritic arbor, the network of teledendrons and dendrites, occur due to the oscillations of polarizations in the membrane of the fine-fibered dendrites, not due to the propagated nerve impulses associated with action potentials. A study by David Alkon showed that after unconscious Pavlovian conditioning there was a proportionally greater reduction in the volume of the dendritic arbor, akin to synaptic elimination when experience increases the automaticity of an action.
At the same time, the dendritic network is extremely complex, able to receivetoinputs in a single tree, due to the large amount of branching and the many dendritic spines protruding from the branches. This spread is further aided intracellularly by the microtubules and extracellularly by glial cells.
These polarizations act as waves in the synaptodendritic network, and the existence of multiple waves at once gives rise to interference patterns.
Pribram suggests that there are two layers of cortical processing: The deep structure contains distributed memory, while the surface structure acts as the retrieval mechanism.
It had been thought that binding only occurred when there was no phase lead or lag present, but a study by Saul and Humphrey found that cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus do in fact produce these.
While Pribram originally developed the holonomic brain theory as an analogy for certain brain processes, several papers including some more recent ones by Teoriz himself have proposed that the similarity between hologram and certain brain functions is more than just metaphorical, but actually structural.
This indicates at least the possibility of the existence of neurological structures with certain holonomic properties. Taking holographic brain models into account, this temperature regulation would reduce distortion of the signal waves, an important condition for holographic systems.
Though not directly related pdibram the holonomic model, they continue to move beyond approaches based solely in classic brain theory. In scientists D. Longuet-Higgins proposed an alternative, non-holographic model that fulfilled many of the same requirements as Gabor’s original holographic model.
The Gabor model did not explain how the brain could use Fourier analysis on incoming signals or how it would deal with the low signal-noise ratio in reconstructed memories. Longuet-Higgin’s correlograph model built on the idea that any system could perform the same functions as a Fourier holograph if it could correlate pairs of patterns.
It uses minute pinholes that do not produce diffraction patterns to create a similar reconstruction as that in Fourier holography. Horizontal lines represent axons of input neurons while vertical lines represent output neurons.
Karl H. Pribram
Each intersection represents a modifiable synapse. Though this cannot recognize displaced patterns, it has a greater potential storage capacity. This was not necessarily meant to show how the brain is organized, but holografixa to show the possibility of improving on Gabor’s original model. He also used a model with a 2D neural hologram network for fast searching imposed upon a 3D network for large storage capacity.
Holonomic brain theory
A key quality of this model was its flexibility to change the orientation and fix distortions of stored information, which is important for our ability to recognize an object as the same entity from different angles and positions, something the correlograph and association network models lack.
Holographic models of memory and consciousness may be related to several brain disorders involving disunity of sensory input within a unified consciousness, including Charles Bonnet SyndromeDisjunctive Agnosia, and Schizophrenia. Charles Bonnet Syndrome patients experience two vastly different worlds within one consciousness. These patients can differentiate these two worlds easily.
Since dynamic core and global workspace theories insist that a distinct area of the brain is responsible for consciousness, the only way a patient would perceive two worlds was if this dynamic core and global workspace were split.
They may see one thing, but hear something entirely incompatible with that image. Schizophrenics often report experiencing thoughts that do not seem to originate from themselves, as if the idea was inserted exogenously. The individual feels no control over certain thoughts existing within their consciousness.
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Is the cupboard bare? Journal of Theoretical Biology. Processing in the synaptodendritic web”. New Ideas in Psychology. Is it relevant to brain function? A thermodynamic-holographic resolution to the mind-body problem”.
Karl H. Pribram – Wikipedia
An interdisciplinary interpretation of development of homeotherm state in evolution”. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. Leith and Juris Upatnieks The Neurophysiology of Remembering. Beyond localization to holonomy”. Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.
Journal of Consciousness Studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Beyond localization to holonomy,” Irvine, April 1, Retrieved from ” https: Biology theories Consciousness studies Holonomic brain theory Neuroscience Neuropsychology Quantum mind.
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